Short bacterial DNA fragments: detection in dialysate and induction of cytokines.

  title={Short bacterial DNA fragments: detection in dialysate and induction of cytokines.},
  author={Ralf Schindler and Werner Beck and Reinhold M Deppisch and Mario Aussieker and Adelheid Wilde and Hermann Goehl and Ulrich A Frei},
  journal={Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN},
  volume={15 12},
A number of bacterial cytokine-inducing substances (CIS) such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and exotoxins have been detected in dialysate and may contribute to inflammation in hemodialysis patients. Short DNA fragments, oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of 6 to 20 nucleotides, are able to bind to Toll-like receptors and are stimulatory on immune cells. ODN induce natural killer cell activity and induce IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 from mononuclear cells. The presence of ODN in dialysate samples and… CONTINUE READING


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