Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is consistent with a key criterion for pain

@article{Magee2013ShockAB,
  title={Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is consistent with a key criterion for pain},
  author={Barry Magee and Robert William Elwood},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2013},
  volume={216},
  pages={353 - 358}
}
SUMMARY Nociception allows for immediate reflex withdrawal whereas pain allows for longer-term protection via rapid learning. We examine here whether shore crabs placed within a brightly lit chamber learn to avoid one of two dark shelters when that shelter consistently results in shock. Crabs were randomly selected to receive shock or not prior to making their first choice and were tested again over 10 trials. Those that received shock in trial 2, irrespective of shock in trial 1, were more… 

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