Shoals and schools: back to the heuristic definitions and quantitative references

@article{Delcourt2012ShoalsAS,
  title={Shoals and schools: back to the heuristic definitions and quantitative references},
  author={Johann Delcourt and Pascal Poncin},
  journal={Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries},
  year={2012},
  volume={22},
  pages={595-619}
}
The terms ‘shoal’, ‘swarm’ and ‘school’ are very frequently used in research on collective behaviours in animals. Pitcher’s definitions are accepted as the authority in the field but are based on a conceptual criterion of sociability. Without call into question the basis of these definitions, they do not provide tools to determine these behaviours quantitatively. To compare studies between populations, species, taxa or different experimental treatments, and between different authors… 
Towards of a firmer explanation of large shoal formation, maintenance and collective reactions in marine fish
TLDR
How well the mechanisms commonly proposed to explain enhanced safety of group living prey explain fish shoals reaching very large sizes are conceptually re-examined, which finds little support from either empirical studies or classical models.
The relationship between personality and the collective motion of schooling fish
TLDR
It is suggested that variation in the personality (especially boldness and sociability) composition of fish groups might be a major cause of variation in group-level behavior.
Differences in shoaling behavior in two species of freshwater fish (Danio rerio and Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi).
TLDR
It was found that tank geometry did not affect group polarization, whereas group size had an effect on black neon tetra density, which was higher in small group sizes than in large ones.
Experimental analysis and modelling of the behavioural interactions underlying the coordination of collective motion and the propagation of information in fish schools
TLDR
This work characterised and quantified the interactions and mechanisms at the origin of, first, the coordination of individuals in fish schools and, second, the propagation of information, when the group is under endogenous or exogenous perturbations.
The shoaling behavior of two cyprinid species in conspecific and heterospecific groups
TLDR
It is demonstrated that in the heterospecific groups, Chinese bream elevated their percent time moving while qingbo decreased their inter-individual distance to achieve consistent collective movement; thus, the two species showed similar behavior in the mixed-species group.
Inspection behaviour and inter-individual cooperation in juvenile qingbo: the effects of prior predator exposure and food deprivation
TLDR
The findings suggested that the adjustment of inspection behaviour and related cooperation are rather complicated according to either predator experience or food deprivation, partially due to the inter-individual differences in behavioural adjustment and/or different environmental conditions.
Social and Ecological Factors Influencing Collective Behavior in Giant Danio
TLDR
This dissertation focuses on shoaling (aggregating) fish and focuses on two ecologically relevant decision-making behaviors: rheotaxis, or orientation with respect to a flow, and startle response, a rapid response to a perceived threat.
Swarming, schooling, milling: phase diagram of a data-driven fish school model
TLDR
This study focused not only on the transition to schooling induced by increasing the swimming speed, but also on the conditions under which a school can exhibit milling dynamics and the corresponding behavioural transitions, showing the existence of a transition region between milling and schooling.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 177 REFERENCES
The STARFLAG handbook on collective animal behaviour: 1. Empirical methods
Dynamics of fish shoals: identifying key decision rules
TLDR
By tracking the movements of individual fish over time, this work finds evidence for both attraction and repulsion zones in fish shoaling, and three other novel features emerge as well.
The STARFLAG handbook on collective animal behaviour: Part II, three-dimensional analysis
TLDR
It is demonstrated that neglecting border effects gives rise to artefacts when studying the 3D structure of a group, and that mathematical rigour is essential to distinguish important biological properties from trivial geometric features of animal groups.
Key Behavioural Factors in a Self-Organised Fish School Model
TLDR
A key result of this study is that the fish density in certain stationary states reaches values where each fish perceives each other; local interactions actually become global interactions.
Leadership in fish shoals
Leadership is not an inherent quality of animal groups that show directional locomotion. However, there are other factors that may be responsible for the occurrence of leadership in fish shoals, such
Emergence of Oblong School Shape: Models and Empirical Data of Fish
TLDR
The relation between school shape and size in the model and in the real mullets supports the hypothesis that school shape may be emergent from the avoidance of collisions during coordinated travelling.
Direct observations of clustering (schooling and swarming) behaviour in mysids (Crustacea: Mysidacea)
TLDR
The functions of clustering include increased reproductive potential, antipredation, and maintenance of position in the environment; however, the latter is the most important factor influencing variation in clustering behaviour.
...
...