Shoal choice in zebrafish, Danio rerio: the influence of shoal size and activity

  title={Shoal choice in zebrafish, Danio rerio: the influence of shoal size and activity},
  author={Victoria L. Pritchard and James Lawrence and Roger K. Butlin and Jens Krause},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
Shoaling fish are expected, in many cases, to gain fitness benefits from being in a larger shoal and previous experiments have shown that fish are indeed capable of choosing between shoals of different sizes. [] Key Method We gave test fish the choice between shoals of one to four stimulus fish, presented at two different water temperatures, and so differing in their activity levels. Where all stimulus fish were in water of the same temperature, test fish generally preferred the larger shoal. However, this…
Daily variation in the shoaling behavior of zebrafish Danio rerio
The results demonstrate the existence of daily variations in the shoaling behavior of fish and suggest that environmental cues in the form of light/dark cycles play an important role in regulating these variations.
Sex-Assortative Shoaling in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) shoaling was studied in the laboratory using four different experiments utilizing two different methodologies, and there was no consistent result when females were forced to choose between three females and six males, thus the preference for same-sex shoppers may be balanced with a preference for larger shoals.
Group size and aquatic vegetation modulates male preferences for female shoals in wild zebrafish, Danio rerio
This work is a first attempt to understand the role of aquatic flora in determining shoaling preferences in zebrafish, using an experimental paradigm consisting of a gradation in female and vegetation densities.
Shoal choice in juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare): effects of social status and activity
Results contrast with those previously found in this species when test fish preferred to aggregate with shoals of familiar subordinate conspecifics placed in small display compartments and indicate that angelfish take shoal activity into account when making a shoaling decision.
Repeated measures of shoaling tendency in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and other small teleost fishes
This protocol details a method for constructing and using both a holding tank and a test tank to assess the shoaling tendency of zebrafish and other teleosts. The test tank consists of a central
Zebrafish prefer larger to smaller shoals: analysis of quantity estimation in a genetically tractable model organism
It is confirmed that zebrafish possess the ability to distinguish larger numbers of items from smaller number of items, in a shoaling context, with a potential limit above 4.
Activity Counts: The Effect of Swimming Activity on Quantity Discrimination in Fish
It is demonstrated that angelfish select the larger of two shoals of conspecifics without using inter-fish distance or space occupied by the stimuli as cues, but density appeared to influence the choice between large shoals.
Daily shoaling patterns in the zebrafish Danio rerio
This study shows that shoaling behavior changes with light/dark cycles and that fish shoal even during reduced visibility conditions, although mean shoaling times during the light phase were significantly higher than mean shoppers during the dark phase.
Discrimination of the larger shoal in the poeciliid fish Girardinus falcatus
This work investigated the spontaneous choice for the larger of two shoals in female goldbelly topminnows and compared two different methods to determine an efficient procedure for studying the numerical competence of fish and found that when groups differed in size by one individual, choice of the larger shoal was significantly above that predicted by chance.
Influence of environmental colors and long-term sex isolation on zebrafish shoaling behavior
Significant sex-related differences were found in shoaling partner preference and females showed a tendency to avoid other females and spent more time with males, while there was an obvious difference between males and females in responses and selection of shoaling partners.


The influence of nutritional state on shoal choice in zebrafish,Danio rerio
Investigation of the mechanisms and functions of shoal choice in relation to nutritional state in the zebrafish found that food-deprived test fish had a significantly higher foraging success in shoals consisting of well-fed individuals than in ones that comprised food- Deprived fish.
Shoal choice behaviour in fish : The relationship between assessment time and assessment quality
Results indicate that choosing between different groups is associated with a significant time cost, and suggests that the benefits derived from group size discrimination were increasingly outweighed by the time costs of making group size assessments in the presence of potential danger.
The influence of alarm substance and shoal size on the behaviour of zebra danios, Brachydanio rerio (Cyprinidae)
It appears that the presence of conspecifics is unnecessary for alarm behaviours to occur and that the nature of the behaviours are independent of shoal size.
Group Vigilance and Shoal Size in a Small Characin Fish
The importance of the enhanced predator detection ability of fish shoals and the social transmission of alarms within them is discussed in relation to predator avoidance behaviour and other activities of fish in shoals.
Size segregation and the effects of oddity on predation risk in minnow schools
Effects of temperature on anti-predator behaviour in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata
From multifactor analysis of 18 behaviour types, temperature was shown to affect behavioural time budgets profoundly, particularly in the presence of the predator, and a shift occurred from inactive anti-predator behaviours and minimal foraging activity towards active predator inspection-related behaviours and a much higher level of feeding.
A sexual aggregating pheromone system in the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan).
Zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, when placed in a T-maze demonstrated preference for, or avoidance of, donor water produced when specified numbers of conspecifics of either sex were kept in holding
Oddity and the ‘confusion effect’ in predation
Predator preferences for attacking particular prey group sizes: consequences for predator hunting success and prey predation risk
Per capita predation risk is lower than in small shoals, and joining larger shoals should be advantageous for individual guppies, but cichlids would do better in terms of hunting success by attacking small rather than large shoals.
Swimming speeds and activity levels of consumers at various resource and consumer densities under predation risk
The behavioural responses implied an increase in encounter rates with prey at low prey densities, a property that has the potential to stabilise predator-prey systems.