Shifting paradigms: development of high-efficiency biochar fertilizers based on nano-structures and soluble components

@article{Joseph2013ShiftingPD,
  title={Shifting paradigms: development of high-efficiency biochar fertilizers based on nano-structures and soluble components},
  author={Stephen Joseph and Er Graber and C. H. Chia and Paul Munroe and Scott W. Donne and Torsten Thomas and Shaun Nielsen and Christopher E. Marjo and Helen Rutlidge and G. Pan and Li-Kun Li and Paul Taylor and Aditya Rawal and James M. Hook},
  journal={Carbon Management},
  year={2013},
  volume={4},
  pages={323 - 343}
}
Many biochars have a complex carbon lattice structure with aromatic and aliphatic domains, acidic and basic groups, vacancies, metallic and non-metallic elements, and free radicals. Biochars also have separate mineral oxide, silicate and salt phases, and small and large organic molecules. In the rhizosphere, such constituents can be involved in chemical and biological processes along a soil–microbe–plant continuum, including nutrient cycling, metal chelation and stabilization, redox reactions… 
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