Shellfish-Borne Viral Outbreaks: A Systematic Review

  title={Shellfish-Borne Viral Outbreaks: A Systematic Review},
  author={Maria Bellou and Petros Kokkinos and Apostolos Vantarakis},
  journal={Food and Environmental Virology},
Investigations of disease outbreaks linked to shellfish consumption have been reported in the scientific literature; however, only few countries systematically collate and report such data through a disease surveillance system. We conducted a systematic review to investigate shellfish-borne viral outbreaks and to explore their distribution in different countries, and to determine if different types of shellfish and viruses are implicated. Six databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, PubMed… 
An outbreak of norovirus linked to oysters in Tasmania.
This report highlights the consequences of norovirus outbreaks in shellfish, even with rapid identification, trace back and removal of the implicated product from the market.
Foodborne Viruses Associated with Consumption of Shellfish
Seafood and shellfish have always been an important source of protein and fatty acids in the human diet and their per capita consumption has increased significantly across the globe in recent years.
Global avian influenza outbreaks 2010–2016: a systematic review of their distribution, avian species and virus subtype
Avian influenza virus has been proved to be able to contaminate all types of avian species, including commercial poultry farms, wild birds, backyard domestic animals, live poultry, game birds and mixed poultry, in both developed and developing countries.
Norovirus Detection at Oualidia Lagoon, a Moroccan Shellfish Harvesting Area, by Reverse Transcription PCR Analysis
Investigation of NoV presence in shellfish samples collected at four sites owcff Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast) from November 2015 to February 2017 highlighted the need of regularly monitoring viral contamination in bivalve shellfish to limit the risk of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks.
National survey of foodborne viruses in Australian oysters at production.
Occurrence of Human Enteric Viruses in Shellfish along the Production and Distribution Chain in Sicily, Italy
The study highlights the need to implement routine monitoring programs along the whole food chain as an effective measure to prevent foodborne transmission of enteric viruses.
Shellfish : Risk for Norovirus Outbreaks and Sporadic Infections
NoVs, previously known as Norwalk-like viruses from the Caliciviridae family, are non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses with icosahedral capsid symmetry. NoV infection causes
Absence of norovirus contamination in shellfish harvested and commercialized in the Northeast coast of Brazil
  • K. Guarines, R. Mendes, L. Pena
  • Biology
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • 2020
The aim of this study was to map, for the first time, the distribution of NoV contamination in oysters and mussels harvested and commercialized in the coast of Pernambuco state, northeast Brazil, and to suggest a low risk of Nov contamination from this food source during the study period.
Detection of human enteric viruses in water and shellfish samples collected in Sicily (Italy)
Enteric viruses are responsible for foodborne and waterborne infections caused by contaminated food products and water, affecting a large number of people. Among the foods an important role is played


Infectious outbreaks associated with bivalve shellfish consumption: a worldwide perspective.
  • I. Potasman, A. Paz, M. Odeh
  • Environmental Science
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2002
Conventional and molecular techniques should be applied to better identify the causative agents of shellfish-associated infections, thereby enabling more-targeted control measures in growing, harvesting, and shipping bivalves.
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It is proposed that easily cultivated enteroviruses, such as poliovirus, be used as an interim indicator for the possible presence of human pathogenic viruses in seafoods, with the subsequent formulation of guidelines to limit the levels of virus contamination in shellfish.
Norovirus gastroenteritis general outbreak associated with raw shellfish consumption in South Italy
This is the first community outbreak caused by NVs related to sea-food consumption described in Italy and confirms that the present standards for human faecal contamination do not seem to be a reliable indicator of viral contaminants in mussels.
Internationally distributed frozen oyster meat causing multiple outbreaks of norovirus infection in Australia.
  • R. Webby, K. Carville, G. Hall
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2007
These outbreaks of norovirus in 3 Australian jurisdictions involving 83 cases of illness were associated with imported oyster meat demonstrate the potential of foodborne disease to spread internationally and the need for national and international collaboration to investigate such outbreaks.
Oyster-associated outbreaks of Norovirus gastroenteritis in Singapore.
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Seafood-associated disease outbreaks in New York, 1980-1994.
Two New Zealand outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis linked to commercially farmed oysters.
Investigation of two gastroenteritis outbreaks in Auckland and Waikato led to the discovery of a common source of norovirus at a commercial oyster growing area, which was traced back to the same growing area.
Risk Assessment in Shellfish-Borne Outbreaks of Hepatitis A
This work provides the first evidence of accurate HAV levels in shellfish involved in outbreaks that could be of use for risk assessment purposes and shows that prospective monitoring of bivalve samples may fail to prevent outbreaks.
Molecular confirmation of oysters as the vector for hepatitis A in a 2005 multistate outbreak.
This investigation is the first in the United States to identify an HAV-identical strain in persons with hepatitis A as well as in the food that was implicated as the source of their infections.