Shell orientation terminology among the Bivalvia (Mollusca): Problems and proposed solutions

  title={Shell orientation terminology among the Bivalvia (Mollusca): Problems and proposed solutions},
  author={Jack Bowman Bailey},
  journal={Journal of Paleontology},
  pages={493 - 495}
  • J. B. Bailey
  • Published 1 May 2009
  • Environmental Science
  • Journal of Paleontology
Traditional terms used to describe shell orientation in bivalves are unsatisfactory in three important ways: 1) for poorly known bivalve taxa, unbiased and directionally neutral terms are sometimes needed to replace anterior and posterior where data are incomplete; 2) there is a striking absence of simple terms to apply to the long and short ends of the shell; and 3) the term lateral is either incorrectly or inconsistently applied. in the following discussion, I shall explore each of these… 
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An axis-based framework is developed, grounded in the homology of shell features, to orient shells for landmark-based, comparative morphology, and facilitates the comparison of continuous differences in shape among many other phylogenetically broad and morphologically disparate samples.
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Four new species of Ledella are identified and a morphometric study is conducted to corroborate their delimitation; the resulting conchological-based statistic models are in 95% agreement with the traditional criteria for the right valves and 88.33% for the left valves.
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Morphological analysis supports DNA studies suggesting Acharax and Solemya are monophyletic, thereby challenging recent taxonomies placing them in separate families or superfamilies.


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The Chesterian Imo Formation in north-central Arkansas contains an abundant and diverse bivalve fauna which is dominated in numbers by nuculoids, and the following new taxa are proposed.
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Paleontology is concerned with the study of the distribution of Carboniferous strata of Tournaisian to Westphalian age, as well as the phytochemical properties of these strata.
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