Shaping the things to come: ontogeny of lophotrochozoan neuromuscular systems and the tetraneuralia concept.

@article{Wanninger2009ShapingTT,
  title={Shaping the things to come: ontogeny of lophotrochozoan neuromuscular systems and the tetraneuralia concept.},
  author={Andreas Wanninger},
  journal={The Biological bulletin},
  year={2009},
  volume={216 3},
  pages={293-306}
}
Despite the large variation in adult bodyplan phenotypes, a worm-shaped morphology is considered plesiomorphic for both Lophotrochozoa and Bilateria. Although almost all larval and adult lophotrochozoan worms have serially arranged ring muscles in their body wall, a comparison of their ontogeny reveals no less than six different developmental pathways that lead to this homogenous arrangement of ring muscles. However, in all taxa, with the exception of chaetodermomorph molluscs and the segmented… CONTINUE READING
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