Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.

  title={Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.},
  author={Michael A. Nitsche and S Doemkes and Tamer Karak{\"o}se and Andrea Antal and David Liebetanz and Nicolas Lang and Frithjof Tergau and Walter Paulus},
  journal={Journal of neurophysiology},
  volume={97 4},
Transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) induces stimulation polarity-dependent neuroplastic excitability shifts in the human brain. Because it accomplishes long-lasting effects and its application is simple, it is used increasingly. However, one drawback is its low focality, caused by 1) the large stimulation electrode and 2) the functionally effective reference electrode, which is also situated on the scalp. We aimed to increase the focality of tDCS, which might improve the interpretation of the… 

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