Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal Flower Burial in Northern Iraq

  title={Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal Flower Burial in Northern Iraq},
  author={Ralph S. Solecki},
  pages={880 - 881}
  • R. Solecki
  • Published 28 November 1975
  • Environmental Science
  • Science
The discovery ofpollen clusters of different kinds offlowers in the grave of one of the Neanderthals, No. IV, at Shanidar cave, Iraq, furthers our acceptance of the Neanderthals in our line ofevolution. It suggests that, although the body was archaic, the .. tonlike leaves and long yellow needlelike spikes which spread outward from the rounded heads of yellow flowers. This unlikely looking flower is used by peasants to make herbal remedies, and I have seen Shanidar inhabitants eat the head of… 


Through interdisciplinary studies in the archaeological excavation of Shanidar Cave, a large cave site in northern Iraq, advances have been made in our knowledge of Neanderthal man. Skeletal remains

The Shanidar IV ‘Flower Burial’: a Re-evaluation of Neanderthal Burial Ritual

  • J. Sommer
  • Biology
    Cambridge Archaeological Journal
  • 1999
Zoological data is presented to suggest that Meriones persicus, a small rodent native to the Shanidar region, is capable of having introduced enough flower heads into the cave to account for the pollen found near Shanidars IV.

Newly discovered Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan, and their attribution to Shanidar 5.

Evidence for the Paleoethnobotany of the Neanderthal: A Review of the Literature

The current evidence, derived from such sources as plant remains, for Neanderthal's nutritional, medicinal, and ritual use of plants, is reviewed, which includes 61 different taxa from 26 different plant families found at 17 different archaeological sites to provide a more stable foundation for future work.

Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800b.p.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China

The palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China is reported.

Psychotropic or ritual use of Acacia flowers prior to abandonment of a prehistoric Mimbres-Mogollon archeological site

One hundred twenty-eight samples of pollen were collected from 11 rooms at the NAN Ranch Ruin, a Mimbres-Mogollon archeological site in south-central New Mexico occupied from 750 to 1130 A.D. Of

New Neanderthal remains associated with the ‘flower burial’ at Shanidar Cave

Abstract Shanidar Cave in Iraqi Kurdistan became an iconic Palaeolithic site following Ralph Solecki's mid twentieth-century discovery of Neanderthal remains. Solecki argued that some of these

Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave Shanidar IV?

  • J. Lietava
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • 1992

A comparative analysis of the hominin triquetrum (SKX 3498) from Swartkrans, South Africa

  • T. Kivell
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2011
Shared hominid-like morphology between SKX 3498 and Neanderthals suggests that both may retain the symplesiomorphic hominin form, but that functional differences compared to modern humans may be subtle.



Flowers of the Mediterranean

An illustrated guide to the rich and colourful flora of the Mediterranean which describes over 700 plants from Spain to Greece, form western Turkey to the Lebanon. It has been updated to include the

Prehistory in Shanidar Valley, Northern Iraq: Fresh insights into Near Eastern prehistory from the Middle Paleolithic to the Proto-Neolithic are obtained.

In the article "Prehistory in Shanidar Valley, Northern Iraq" by R. S. Solecki [ Science 139, 179 (1963)], reference 4 in the caption for Fig. 12, should have read "J. Franklin Ewing, S.J."

Medicinal Plants of Iraq (Iraq Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Agricultural Research and Projects

  • 1964

This age estimation is based on a soil accumulation rate which may have occurred in the cave. Estimate was extrapolated from carbon-14 dates presented in

  • Science
  • 1963

Wild Plants ofIraq, with Their Distribution (Iraq Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Agricultural Research and Projects

  • 1968

The original supposition that these Neanderthals were killed by a rockfall (1) is negated by additional evidence

  • Sumer
  • 1963

Wild Plants ofIraq, with Their Distribution (Iraq

  • Medicinal Plants of Iraq (Iraq Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Agricultural Research and Projects, Baghdad,
  • 1968

The Current State of Knowledge of Photochemical Formation of Fuel (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C