Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal Flower Burial in Northern Iraq

  title={Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal Flower Burial in Northern Iraq},
  author={Ralph S. Solecki},
  pages={880 - 881}
  • R. Solecki
  • Published 28 November 1975
  • Geography
  • Science
The discovery ofpollen clusters of different kinds offlowers in the grave of one of the Neanderthals, No. IV, at Shanidar cave, Iraq, furthers our acceptance of the Neanderthals in our line ofevolution. It suggests that, although the body was archaic, the .. tonlike leaves and long yellow needlelike spikes which spread outward from the rounded heads of yellow flowers. This unlikely looking flower is used by peasants to make herbal remedies, and I have seen Shanidar inhabitants eat the head of… 
Through interdisciplinary studies in the archaeological excavation of Shanidar Cave, a large cave site in northern Iraq, advances have been made in our knowledge of Neanderthal man. Skeletal remains
Newly discovered Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan, and their attribution to Shanidar 5.
Evidence for the Paleoethnobotany of the Neanderthal: A Review of the Literature
The current evidence, derived from such sources as plant remains, for Neanderthal's nutritional, medicinal, and ritual use of plants, is reviewed, which includes 61 different taxa from 26 different plant families found at 17 different archaeological sites to provide a more stable foundation for future work.
Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800b.p.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China
The palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China is reported.
Psychotropic or ritual use of Acacia flowers prior to abandonment of a prehistoric Mimbres-Mogollon archeological site
One hundred twenty-eight samples of pollen were collected from 11 rooms at the NAN Ranch Ruin, a Mimbres-Mogollon archeological site in south-central New Mexico occupied from 750 to 1130 A.D. Of
New Neanderthal remains associated with the ‘flower burial’ at Shanidar Cave
Abstract Shanidar Cave in Iraqi Kurdistan became an iconic Palaeolithic site following Ralph Solecki's mid twentieth-century discovery of Neanderthal remains. Solecki argued that some of these
Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave Shanidar IV?
  • J. Lietava
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • 1992
The result of the research revealed that Shanidar IV flowers possess considerable therapeutic effects with marked medical activity, which could be an intentional reason for the selection of the flowers in Middle Paleolithic Shanidsar Neanderthals.
A comparative analysis of the hominin triquetrum (SKX 3498) from Swartkrans, South Africa
Shared hominid-like morphology between SKX 3498 and Neanderthals suggests that both may retain the symplesiomorphic hominin form, but that functional differences compared to modern humans may be subtle.
Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq.


Flowers of the Mediterranean
An illustrated guide to the rich and colourful flora of the Mediterranean which describes over 700 plants from Spain to Greece, form western Turkey to the Lebanon. It has been updated to include the
Prehistory in Shanidar Valley, Northern Iraq: Fresh insights into Near Eastern prehistory from the Middle Paleolithic to the Proto-Neolithic are obtained.
In the article "Prehistory in Shanidar Valley, Northern Iraq" by R. S. Solecki [ Science 139, 179 (1963)], reference 4 in the caption for Fig. 12, should have read "J. Franklin Ewing, S.J."
Wild Plants ofIraq, with Their Distribution (Iraq
  • Medicinal Plants of Iraq (Iraq Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Agricultural Research and Projects, Baghdad,
  • 1968
Wild Plants ofIraq, with Their Distribution (Iraq Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Agricultural Research and Projects
  • 1968
Medicinal Plants of Iraq (Iraq Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Agricultural Research and Projects
  • 1964
The original supposition that these Neanderthals were killed by a rockfall (1) is negated by additional evidence
  • Sumer
  • 1963
This age estimation is based on a soil accumulation rate which may have occurred in the cave. Estimate was extrapolated from carbon-14 dates presented in
  • Science
  • 1963
The Current State of Knowledge of Photochemical Formation of Fuel (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C