Shallow Gamification

  title={Shallow Gamification},
  author={Andreas Lieberoth},
  journal={Games and Culture},
  pages={229 - 248}
This article experimentally dissociates the psychological impact of framing versus game mechanics, when presenting a serious activity as a game. Studies of game elements in nongame contexts tend to describe full packages, with no way of assessing their individual psychological and functional impact. To isolate the effects of framing, students (N = 90) were assigned to either discuss study environment issues through a list of questions, via a competitive discussion board game, or though the same… 

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