Sexually Mature Individuals of Xenopus laevis from the Transplantation of Single Somatic Nuclei

  title={Sexually Mature Individuals of Xenopus laevis from the Transplantation of Single Somatic Nuclei},
  author={J. B. Gurdon and T. R. Elsdale and Michail Fischberg},
A METHOD of testing the potentialities of nuclei from embryonic cells has been described by Briggs and King1. The method consists of transferring a nucleus from an embryonic cell into an enucleated and unfertilized egg of the same species. King and Briggs2, who have performed their experiments on Rana pipiens, found that normal tadpoles resulted from eggs with transplanted nuclei in about 35 per cent of cases in which the nuclei were taken from blastulæ, but in only about 6 per cent of cases in… 
The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from differentiating endoderm cells of Xenopus laevis.
  • J. Gurdon
  • Biology
    Journal of embryology and experimental morphology
  • 1960
The general conclusion that nuclei change as development proceeds is confirmed; there are, however, considerable differences between Rana and Xenopus in the rate and time of onset of nuclear changes that make it easier to understand the significance of nuclear differentiation during embryonic development.
Origin and progress of nuclear transfer in nonmammalian animals.
Classic studies in cytology, embryology, or genetics spanning more than five centuries that led to nuclear transfers in unicellular animals and to those in oocytes of insects, fish and amphibians are reviewed.
Investigations of the germ-plasm in relation to nuclear transplantation.
The first clear demonstration of vertebrate primordial germ-cells appearing in a stage as early as the blastula was made in the European frog, Rana temporaria, found to be conspicuous because of a stainable cytoplasmic element, the germ-plasm.