A Quality Assessment of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Sexual Function in Neurologic Patients Using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments Checklist: A Systematic Review.
Sexual dysfunction (SD) is common among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other dementias. Sexual functioning and well-being of patients with PD and their partners are affected by many factors, including motor disabilities, non-motor symptoms (e.g., autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbances, mood disorders, cognitive abnormalities, pain, and sensory disorders), medication effects, and relationship issues. The common sexual problems are decreased desire, erectile dysfunction, difficulties in reaching orgasm, and sexual dissatisfaction. Hypersexuality is one of a broad range of impulse control disorders reported in PD, attributed to antiparkinsonian therapy, mainly dopamine agonists. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team may enable a significant management of hypersexuality. Data on SD in demented patients are scarce, mainly reporting reduced frequency of sex and erectile dysfunction. Treatment of SD is advised at an early stage. Behavioral problems, including inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB), are distressing for patients and their caregivers and may reflect the prevailing behavior accompanying dementia (disinhibition or apathy associated with hyposexuality). The neurobiologic basis of ISB is still only vaguely understood but assessment and intervention are recommended as soon as ISB is suspected. Management of ISB in dementia demands a thorough evaluation and understanding of the behavior, and can be treated by non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions.