Sexual selection and genital evolution

@article{Simmons2014SexualSA,
  title={Sexual selection and genital evolution},
  author={Leigh W. Simmons},
  journal={Austral Entomology},
  year={2014},
  volume={53}
}
  • L. Simmons
  • Published 1 February 2014
  • Biology
  • Austral Entomology
Male genitalia show patterns of divergent evolution, and sexual selection is recognised as being responsible for this taxonomically widespread phenomenon. Much of the empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis comes from studies of insects. Here, I synthesise the literature on insect genital evolution, and use this synthesis to address the debate over the mechanisms of selection most likely to explain observed patterns of macroevolutionary divergence in genital morphology. Studies of… 
Multivariate stabilizing sexual selection and the evolution of male and female genital morphology in the red flour beetle*
TLDR
Formal selection analysis is used to show that genital size and shape is subject to strong multivariate stabilizing sexual selection in both sexes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and shows significant sexual selection on the covariance between the sexes for specific aspects of genital shape suggesting that male and female genitalia also interact to determine the successful transfer of a spermatophore during mating.
Female‐driven intersexual coevolution in beetle genitalia
TLDR
This work corroborates the hypothesis that female traits may change independently and elicit counter‐adaptations in males and shows a consistent pattern across the phylogeny of the most diverse group of animals, suggesting that this female‐driven dynamics may persist through long time scales.
The evolution of female genitalia
TLDR
Examination of evidence for three mechanisms of genital evolution in females: species isolating ‘lock‐and‐key’ evolution, cryptic female choice and sexual conflict finds support for female genital evolution via sexual conflict.
Female genitalia can evolve more rapidly and divergently than male genitalia
TLDR
It is shown that across onthophagine dung beetles, female genital shape has diverged much more rapidly than male genital shape, and it is suggested that female genitalia are under sexual selection through their role in female choice.
Experimental evolution reveals divergence in female genital teeth morphology in response to sexual conflict intensity in a moth
TLDR
Examining spermatophore and teeth morphology in populations of the Indian moth, Plodia interpunctella, found divergence in female signa morphology in response to sexual conflict: females from female‐biased populations (reduced sexual conflict) developed wider signa.
Interspecific introgression reveals a role of male genital morphology during the evolution of reproductive isolation in Drosophila
TLDR
The results provide evidence that divergence in genitalia can in fact give rise to substantial reproductive isolation early during species divergence, and they also reveal novel reproductive functions of the external male genitalia in Drosophila.
Sexual Selection Within the Female Genitalia in Lepidoptera
TLDR
This chapter explores the selective pressures responsible for the evolution of genital morphology in the Lepidoptera, emphasizing the possible role of post-copulatory intersexual selection (PCIS) mechanisms (cryptic female choice and sexual conflict).
The evolution of genital shape variation in female cetaceans *
TLDR
Female genital shape is diverse and evolves rapidly even among closely related species, consistent with predictions of sexual selection models and with findings in invertebrate and vertebrate taxa.
Demonstrating sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male genitalia: What is enough?
TLDR
It is reasonable to conclude that some genital structures in both groups likely involved sexual selection by CFC, and the number and extent of tests confirming predictions of the CFC hypothesis in these species is greater than that for other generally accepted hypotheses regarding the functions of nongenital structures.
tartan underlies the evolution of Drosophila male genital morphology
TLDR
A gene underlying evolutionary change in the size of a male genital organ is identified, which will help to better understand not only the rapid diversification of these structures, but also the regulation and evolution of organ size more broadly.
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References

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TLDR
Using the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, the power of experimental evolution with multivariate selection and quantitative genetic analyses is combined to provide the most comprehensive evidence available of the form and evolutionary consequences of sexual selection acting on male genital morphology.
Comparative evidence for the evolution of genitalia by sexual selection
TLDR
By comparing pairs of related clades of insects that differ in mating system, this work assesses how the opportunity for postmating sexual selection affects the rate of divergent evolution of male genitalia.
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TLDR
It is argued that further advances in the study of genital coevolution will require a much more detailed understanding of the functions of male and female genital traits, and the evolution of static allometry in response to variation in sexual selection opportunity.
Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution
TLDR
The underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.
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TLDR
Consistent patterns of variation in male genital size and shape in relation to the level of predation, and corresponding patterns of (co)variation in female genital morphology are found, which point to a role for sexually antagonistic selection.
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TLDR
It is argued that the fact that male genitalia are under sexual selection and thus diverge rapidly does not necessarily equate with the lack of phylogenetic signal, because characters that evolve by descent with modification make appropriate characters for a phylogenetic analysis, despite the rate of evolution.
RAPID DIVERGENT EVOLUTION OF SEXUAL MORPHOLOGY: COMPARATIVE TESTS OF ANTAGONISTIC COEVOLUTION AND TRADITIONAL FEMALE CHOICE
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TLDR
The possibility of a greater role for antagonistic coevolution in reproductive physiology than in morphology and the possibility that female choice and sexually antagonisticCoevolution have both been important in some lineages are discussed.
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TLDR
Qualitative results provide direct comparative support for the hypothesis that sexual selection is associated with morphological complexity in genitalic traits and highlight the importance of quantifying morphological shape and complexity, rather than size, in studies of genital evolution.
Sexual selection and genital evolution.
TLDR
Several studies now link variation in genital morphology directly to male fertilization success, and modern comparative techniques have confirmed predicted associations between genital complexity and mating patterns across species.
Divergence in genital morphology may contribute to mechanical reproductive isolation in a millipede
TLDR
It is suggested that divergence in genital shape may be contributing to reproductive isolation, and incipient speciation among isolated populations of A. variabilis, and variation in mating behavior might indicate the emergence of precopulatory reproductive barriers.
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