Sexual reproduction by both queens and workers in the ponerine ant Harpegnathos saltator

@article{Peeters2000SexualRB,
  title={Sexual reproduction by both queens and workers in the ponerine ant Harpegnathos saltator},
  author={Christian Peeters and J{\"u}rgen Liebig and Bert Hölldobler},
  journal={Insectes Sociaux},
  year={2000},
  volume={47},
  pages={325-332}
}
Summary: Ant workers are very often reproductively degenerate females, but in some species from subfamily Ponerinae, the workers can mate and lay fertilized eggs just like queens (they are then termed "gamergates"). In Harpegnathos saltator, new colonies are founded independently by single queens, and when senescent they are replaced by several gamergates. This secondary polygyny is distinguished by three features: (1) behavioural data indicate that young workers copulate with their brothers… 
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