Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain.

  title={Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain.},
  author={Fernando Nottebohm and Arthur P. Arnold},
  volume={194 4261},
In canaries and zebra finches, three vocal control areas in the brain are strikingly larger in males than in females. A fourth, area X of the lobus parolfactorius, is well developed in males of both species, less well developed in femal canaries, and absent or not recognizable in femal zebra finches. These size differences correlate well with differences in singing behavior. Males of both species learn song by reference to auditory information, and females do not normally sing. Exogenous… 
Lack of sexual dimorphism in steroid accumulation in vocal control brain regions of duetting song birds
Tritiated testosterone was injected into bay wrens, a neotropical species in which the female sings a complex song in intricately timed vocal duets with males, suggesting that female birds that produce complex vocalizations have evolved neural song control systems that are extremely similar to those of males in steroid hormone sensitivity.
Behavioral correlates of sexual differentiation in the zebra finch song system
  • M. Gurney
  • Medicine, Biology
    Brain Research
  • 1982
The capacity for song is masculinized in female zebra finches by exposure to 17 beta-estradiol at hatching, and requires continual exposure to androgen for its behavioral expression in the adult. The
Testosterone triggers growth of brain vocal control nuclei in adult female canaries
Two vocal control nuclei of the canary telencephalon, hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc) and nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), are larger in males, that learn complex songs, than in
Sexual Difference in Pattern of Hormone Accumulation in the Brain of a Songbird
After adult zebra finches (Poephila guttata) received injections of tritiated testosterone, fewer hormone-concentrating cells were found in females than in males in two brain regions involved in
Sexual dimorphism in song-induced ZENK expression in the medial striatum of juvenile zebra finches
The data suggest a role for ZENK expression in the MSt outside of Area X in responding to relevant song stimuli, and the clear morphological difference in the lateral MSt (Area X) of males and females is mirrored by a specific functional one.
Sex differences in the ventral paleostriatum of the zebra finch: origin of the cholinergic innervation of the song control nuclei
Both the size and density of the ChAT-immunoreactive somata in areas of the VP that project to the HVC or RA in males were significantly larger than those in females, suggesting sex differences in the VP may be reflected in the sex differences of behaviors such as song perception and production.
Sexual dimorphism and lack of seasonal changes in vocal control regions of the white-crowned sparrow brain
The volumes of brain regions involved in vocal control were measured in adult male and female white-crowned sparrows captured in the summer, and in captive males held on long-day or short-day photoperiods, finding a large sex difference in the volume of two nuclei.
Differential responsiveness in brain and behavior to sexually dimorphic long calls in male and female zebra finches
Male and female zebra finches both show a behavioral preference for female calls, but differential neuronal activation in response to sexually dimorphic calls.
Functional asymmetry of the songbird brain: Effects of testosterone on song control in adult female canaries (serinus canarius)
It is reported that in adult female canaries the importance of the left hemisphere for controlling testosterone induced song increases with singing experience, and the occurrence of left-lateralized control of vocal behavior may prove to be a characteristic typical of animals capable of vocal learning.
Neural bases of song preferences in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)
Differences between this study and those showing HVc lesions disrupting song preferences in female canaries Serinus canari a indicate interspecific variation in the function of HVC in female songbirds.


Vocal Imitation and Individual Recognition of Finch Calls
American goldfinch females recognize individual males by their individually distinctive flight calls. Goldfinches and other cardueline finch species are also capable of learning new flight calls by
Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius
Central nervous pathways controlling bird son in the canary are traced using a combination of behavioral and anatomical techniques and direct connections were found onto the cells of the motor nucleus innervating the syrinx, the organ of song production.
Hormone concentrating cells in vocal control and other areas of the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)
Using the autoradiographic method in the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), areas of the brain were identified which contain cells which accumulate testosterone or its metabolites after intramuscular
Induction of Singing in Female Canaries by Injections of Male Hormone.∗
Male hormone was injected into female birds to determine if this behavior is conditioned by secretions of the testis, and in 4 out of 5 birds, the typical male song was sung by the injected females.
The telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon of the canary, Serinus canaria, in stereotaxic coordinates
A stereotaxic atlas of the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon of the canary, Serinus canaria, was prepared for use in anatomical and behavioral experiments. Canaries have a complex vocal
Effects of continuous noise on avian hearing and vocal development.
In spite of the considerable deafness resulting from noise exposure, the deficit in syllable repertoire was corrected, presumably as a result of restoration of the birds' ability to hear their own song.
Sexual dimorphism in the neuropil of the preoptic area of the rat and its dependence on neonatal androgen.
In normal females the number of non-amygdaloid synapses on dendritic spines in the preoptic area is higher than in the male, and the suggestion that this difference could be related to the ability of the female to maintain a cyclic pattern of gonadotrophin release and/or behavioural oestrus is supported by published work implicating the pre optic area in the control of ovulation and mating behaviour.
Sexual Dimorphism in the Preoptic Area of the Rat
A quantitative evaluation of the relative distribution of synapses on dendritic shafts and spines serves to differentiate the neuropil of the preoptic area from that of the ventromedial hypothalamic
Sex Difference in the Number of Sympathetic Neurons in the Spinal Cord of the Cat
The data suggest that the numbers of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system are different in the two sexes.
Effects of Testosterone Propionate on Female Roller Canaries under Complete Song Isolation
Conclusion The administration of testosterone propionate to normal adult female roller canaries under conditions of complete song isolation brings forth male-like song in approximately 15 days after