Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain.

@article{Nottebohm1976SexualDI,
  title={Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain.},
  author={Fernando Nottebohm and Arthur P. Arnold},
  journal={Science},
  year={1976},
  volume={194 4261},
  pages={
          211-3
        }
}
In canaries and zebra finches, three vocal control areas in the brain are strikingly larger in males than in females. A fourth, area X of the lobus parolfactorius, is well developed in males of both species, less well developed in femal canaries, and absent or not recognizable in femal zebra finches. These size differences correlate well with differences in singing behavior. Males of both species learn song by reference to auditory information, and females do not normally sing. Exogenous… 
Lack of sexual dimorphism in steroid accumulation in vocal control brain regions of duetting song birds
TLDR
Tritiated testosterone was injected into bay wrens, a neotropical species in which the female sings a complex song in intricately timed vocal duets with males, suggesting that female birds that produce complex vocalizations have evolved neural song control systems that are extremely similar to those of males in steroid hormone sensitivity.
Behavioral correlates of sexual differentiation in the zebra finch song system
  • M. Gurney
  • Medicine, Biology
    Brain Research
  • 1982
The capacity for song is masculinized in female zebra finches by exposure to 17 beta-estradiol at hatching, and requires continual exposure to androgen for its behavioral expression in the adult. The
Testosterone triggers growth of brain vocal control nuclei in adult female canaries
Two vocal control nuclei of the canary telencephalon, hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc) and nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), are larger in males, that learn complex songs, than in
Sexual Difference in Pattern of Hormone Accumulation in the Brain of a Songbird
After adult zebra finches (Poephila guttata) received injections of tritiated testosterone, fewer hormone-concentrating cells were found in females than in males in two brain regions involved in
Sexual dimorphism in song-induced ZENK expression in the medial striatum of juvenile zebra finches
TLDR
The data suggest a role for ZENK expression in the MSt outside of Area X in responding to relevant song stimuli, and the clear morphological difference in the lateral MSt (Area X) of males and females is mirrored by a specific functional one.
Sex differences in the ventral paleostriatum of the zebra finch: origin of the cholinergic innervation of the song control nuclei
TLDR
Both the size and density of the ChAT-immunoreactive somata in areas of the VP that project to the HVC or RA in males were significantly larger than those in females, suggesting sex differences in the VP may be reflected in the sex differences of behaviors such as song perception and production.
Sexual dimorphism and lack of seasonal changes in vocal control regions of the white-crowned sparrow brain
TLDR
The volumes of brain regions involved in vocal control were measured in adult male and female white-crowned sparrows captured in the summer, and in captive males held on long-day or short-day photoperiods, finding a large sex difference in the volume of two nuclei.
Differential responsiveness in brain and behavior to sexually dimorphic long calls in male and female zebra finches
TLDR
Male and female zebra finches both show a behavioral preference for female calls, but differential neuronal activation in response to sexually dimorphic calls.
Functional asymmetry of the songbird brain: Effects of testosterone on song control in adult female canaries (serinus canarius)
TLDR
It is reported that in adult female canaries the importance of the left hemisphere for controlling testosterone induced song increases with singing experience, and the occurrence of left-lateralized control of vocal behavior may prove to be a characteristic typical of animals capable of vocal learning.
Neural bases of song preferences in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)
TLDR
Differences between this study and those showing HVc lesions disrupting song preferences in female canaries Serinus canari a indicate interspecific variation in the function of HVC in female songbirds.
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Conclusion The administration of testosterone propionate to normal adult female roller canaries under conditions of complete song isolation brings forth male-like song in approximately 15 days after
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