Sex-specific changes in gene expression and behavior induced by chronic Toxoplasma infection in mice

@article{Xiao2012SexspecificCI,
  title={Sex-specific changes in gene expression and behavior induced by chronic Toxoplasma infection in mice},
  author={J. Xiao and Geetha Kannan and Lorraine Jones-Brando and Cori Brannock and Irina N. Krasnova and J. L. Cadet and Mikhail Pletnikov and Robert H. Yolken},
  journal={Neuroscience},
  year={2012},
  volume={206},
  pages={39-48}
}
Chronic infection of Toxoplasma gondii downregulates miR-132 expression in multiple brain regions in a sex-dependent manner
TLDR
It is found that while acute infection of T. gondii increases the expression of miR-132, chronic infection has the opposite effect; the effect varied amongst different regions of the brain and presented in a sex-dependent manner, with females exhibiting more susceptibility than males.
Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden
TLDR
A chronic model of the virulent type I strain of T. gondii using outbred mice found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections, and a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity was discovered.
Transcriptome Analysis of Mouse Brain Infected with Toxoplasma gondii
TLDR
Positive correlations were found between the numbers of parasites in the infected mouse brains and the expression levels of genes involved in host immune responses, and differential gene expression was observed between mice exhibiting the clinical signs of toxoplasmosis and those that did not.
Toxoplasma gondii-Induced Long-Term Changes in the Upper Intestinal Microflora during the Chronic Stage of Infection
TLDR
The microbiome changes that occur during a long-term infection are assessed by constructing and sequencing 16S rRNA amplicon DNA libraries from small intestine fecal specimens and it is found that acute infection with the GT1 strain of T. gondii caused an enrichment of Bacteroidetes compared with controls in CD1 mice.
Downregulation of the Central Noradrenergic System by Toxoplasma gondii Infection
TLDR
The noradrenergic system was found to be suppressed with decreased levels of norepinephrine in brains of infected animals and in infected human and rat neural cells in vitro, which may, in part, explain behavioral effects of infection and associations with mental illness.
Toxoplasma, testosterone, and behavior manipulation: the role of parasite strain, host variations, and intensity of infection
TLDR
The role of parasite strains, host variations, and intensity of T. gondii infection on behavioral alterations and testosterone production, as well as the role of testosterone in the etiology of these alterations during toxoplasmosis are reviewed.
Insights into the molecular basis of host behaviour manipulation by Toxoplasma gondii infection.
TLDR
It is barely known which among the brain regions governing fear and stress responses are preferentially affected during T. gondii infection and changes in brain homeostasis, which could contribute to a better understanding of this complex host-parasite interaction.
THE EFFECTS OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTIONS ON ANXIETY, DEPRESSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRINGS OF INFECTED PARENTS
TLDR
Female rats with chronic T.Gondii infection have been found to have increased anxiety in open field in the first generation male offsprings and decreased locomotor activity, and increased mobility in male offSprings has been observed in the elevated plus maze test.
Behavioral alterations in long-term Toxoplasma gondii infection of C57BL/6 mice are associated with neuroinflammation and disruption of the blood brain barrier
TLDR
It is suggested that the persistence of parasite cysts induces sustained neuroinflammation, and BBB disruption, thus allowing leakage of cytokines of circulating plasma into the brain tissue, and all these factors may contribute to behavioral changes (anxiety, depressive-like behavior, and hyperactivity) in chronic T. gondii infection.
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TLDR
This study examined the transcriptional profile of human neuroepithelioma cells in response to representative strains of Toxoplasma by using microarray analysis to characterize the strain-specific host cell response, finding that the extents of the expression changes varied considerably among the three strains.
The Neurotropic Parasite Toxoplasma Gondii Increases Dopamine Metabolism
TLDR
Infestation of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of dopamine several-fold, with a direct correlation between the number of infected cells and the quantity of dopamine released, and orchestrates a significant increase in dopamine metabolism in neural cells.
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TLDR
The present data suggest the effect of T. gondii infection on mouse behaviour is parasite strain-dependent, and that PRU- and ME49-infected mice exhibited impaired spatial working memory.
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that male SCID mice are more resistant than female mice to infection with Toxoplasma gondii and that this difference correlates with enhanced innate immune responses in these animals.
Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors
TLDR
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TLDR
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Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection
TLDR
In outbred mice, chronic, adult acquired T. gondii infection raises questions of whether persistence of this parasite in brain can cause inflammation or neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible hosts.
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