Sex segregation ratio and gender expression in the genus Actinidia

  title={Sex segregation ratio and gender expression in the genus Actinidia},
  author={Raffaele Testolin and Guido Cipriani and Guglielmo Costa},
  journal={Sexual Plant Reproduction},
The sex segregation ratio was checked in bi-parental families of Actinidia deliciosa (2n=6x=174) obtained by crossing four females (A12, Mo3, Br4, Hw1) with two males (T2, M1) and one fruiting male (M3h, subandroecious) according to a factorial mating design. The M3h fruiting male was also selfed. The sex ratio was checked in maternal families of A. kolomikta (2n=2x) and A. chinensis (2n=2x) as well as in A. deliciosa. Seedlings of both diploid species took 3–4 years to progress beyond… 

Sex determination in Actinidia. 1. Sex-linked markers and progeny sex ratio in diploid A. chinensis

Results from two strategies aimed at elucidating the genetics of sex in the dioecious genus Actinidia Lindl.

Complex sex determination in the stinging nettle Urtica dioica

To what extent sex determination genes explain the strongly biased seed sex ratios and argue that additional genes, for instance genes for female choice, must also be involved are discussed.

A gene-rich linkage map in the dioecious species Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) reveals putative X/Y sex-determining chromosomes

This work has created genetic linkage maps that define the 29 linkage groups of the haploid genome, and has revealed the position and extent of the sex-determining locus in A. chinensis, suggesting that the subtelomeric region of an autosome is in the early stages of developing the characteristics of a sex chromosome.

Sex Ratios: Sex ratios in dioecious plants

The available direct (seed sex ratio) and indirect (proportions of male and female plants in the field) evidence suggests that the seed sex ratio is often close to 0.5, despite the fact that there is genetic variation in the Seed sex ratio in some cases.

Agronomic, cytogenetic and molecular studies on hermaphroditism and self-compatibility in the Greek kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cultivar ‘Tsechelidis’

Investigation of the expression and nature of self-compatibility in the new kiwifruit cultivar, ‘Tsechelidis’ found that it exhibited a degree of hermaphroditism and self-Compatibility, but complete genome mapping would be required to fully understand the mechanisms involved and to exploit this new genetic material for breeding purposes.

Genetics of dioecy and causal sex chromosomes in plants

Dioecy (separate male and female individuals) ensures outcrossing and is more prevalent in animals than in plants, and presumably a component of the evolutionary cycle for the origin of new species.

Flower and fruit characters in a kiwifruit hermaphrodite

Testing of pollen from all flowers in one season and measurement of fruit characters after self-setting demonstrated this seedling is completely hermaphroditic, carrying only bisexual flowers, with no restriction on selfing.

Environmental conditions affect sex expression in monoecious, but not in male and female plants of Urtica dioica

Results provide strong evidence that monoecious individuals are inconstant males, which alter FSR according to environmental circumstances, and consider sex expression in male and female individuals to be solely genetically based.

A molecular protocol for Early Sex Discrimination (ESD) in Actinidia spp

An Early Sex Discrimination molecular Test (ESD Test) is developed that allows the discrimination of male and female plants using a simple PCR amplification test and it is demonstrated that the test could unequivocally identify the gender of an unknown sample both in the most commercially important species A. chinensis and in further Actinidia species tested with the exception ofactinidia latifolia, where markers fail in gender discrimination.

Labile sex expression in angiosperm species with sex chromosomes

It is found that for only four of the 22 species studied, reports of lability are lacking, and thereby contribute to a growing consensus that sex chromosomes do not necessarily fix sex determination once and for all.




  • J. ConnU. Blum
  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1981
Correns (1928) showed that the sex ratios of Silene alba and Rumex acetosa progenies could be manipulated by controlling the amount of pollen experienced by female partners, and it was found that pollen tubes carrying female-determining gametes reach the egg sooner than pollen.

Sex expression in fruiting male vines of kiwifruit

Flower development, lability in sex expression and the use of P estimates as part of a selection index in breeding for hermaphrodite kiwifruit cultivars are discussed.

Gender variation in Actinidia deliciosa, the kiwifruit

Although the three flower sexes differed in style length, ovary dimensions and ovules per carpel, staminate and bisexual flowers were similar in number of flowers per inflorescence, stamen filament length, pollen stainability, inflorescence rachis length and carpel number, and differed from pistillate flowers in these characters.

Chromosome studies in some Actinidia taxa and implications for breeding

Microsporogenesis was studied in eleven Actinidia taxa including A. deliciosa (kiwifruit) and in an interspecific hybrid, indicating there may be genetic control of chiasmata distribution in these polyploids.

Sex determination in flowering plants.

Advances in the understanding of sex determination will come from the analysis of the genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry of genes controlling sexual determination in plants, and new strategies for the manipulation of sexuality in plants should be forthcoming.

Ploidy races in Actinidia chinensis

Counts on 83 genotypes of different ploidy levels confirmed that the basic chromosome number in Actinidia is 29 and that the largest number of chromosomes in A. chinensis produced a large family of plants and those checked were pentaploid.

Chromosome numbers in two varieties of Actinidia chinensis Planch

Somatic chromosome counts on the 2 varieties of Actinidia chinensis Planch.