PURPOSE To analyze the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine the effects of sex and prognostic factors on the survival of patients with primary urethral carcinoma (PUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected 453 patients diagnosed with PUC from 2004 to 2013 from the SEER database. Statistical analysis was used to identify sex-specific differences associated with tumor characteristics and cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS Compared with men, there was a higher proportion of black women, more negative lymph-node status, higher American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, more advanced T3 stage, more with adenocarcinoma (Ac), and fewer with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Among women, black race and M1 stage were associated with shorter CSS and OS, respectively. In addition, surgery was associated with longer OS in women. Among men, AJCC III and IV and M1 stages were associated with shorter CSS and OS. In addition, age >75 years associated with shorter OS in men. CONCLUSION Black race was associated with shorter OS and CSS of women, and surgery was associated with longer OS of women. Among men, AJCC stage III and IV were associated with shorter OS and CSS. Age >75 years was associated with shorter OS in men only. Women with Ac experienced poor CSS compared with men. Men with TCC experienced worse CSS compared with those with Ac or SCC.