Sex hormones influence on the immune system: basic and clinical aspects in autoimmunity

@article{Cutolo2004SexHI,
  title={Sex hormones influence on the immune system: basic and clinical aspects in autoimmunity},
  author={Maurizio Cutolo and Alberto Sulli and Silvia Capellino and Barbara Villaggio and Paola Montagna and Bruno Seriolo and Rainer H. Straub},
  journal={Lupus},
  year={2004},
  volume={13},
  pages={635 - 638}
}
Sex hormones seem to play an important role as modulators of the autoimmune disease onset/perpetuation. Generally, steroid hormones are implicated in the immune response, with estrogens as enhancers at least of the humoral immunity and androgens and progesterone (and glucocorticoids) as natural immunosuppressors. Synovial fluid levels (SF) of proinflammatory estrogens relative to androgens are significantly elevated in both male and female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, as compared to… 

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