Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands

  title={Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands},
  author={Mark Dyble and Gul Deniz Salali and Neil Chaudhary and Abigail Emma Page and D. Smith and J. Thompson and Lucio Vinicius and Ruth Mace and Andrea Bamberg Migliano},
  pages={796 - 798}
Friends and family? Evolutionary theory stresses the importance of living with kin, not least because they share some of our genes. Nevertheless, a large-scale assessment of contemporary hunter-gatherer societies has established a consistent pattern of unrelated individuals living together. Dyble et al. used a modeling approach to suggest that a possible answer to this conundrum is that cohabitation choices are being governed equally by men and women. Science, this issue p. 796 As human… 
Relatedness within and between Agta residential groups
Patterns of relatedness among the Palanan Agta, hunter–gatherers from the northern Philippines are described, finding no major age or sex differences in the relatedness of adults to their campmates, conditions that may reduce the potential for conflicts of interest within social groups.
Competition for Cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers
Investigating whether differential access to cooperation (relational wealth) is likely to lead to variation in fitness at the individual level among BaYaka hunter-gatherers finds that relational wealth displays individual-level variation and is positively associated with body mass index and female fertility.
Hunter-gatherer multilevel sociality accelerates cumulative cultural evolution
It is demonstrated that multilevel sociality accelerates cultural differentiation and cumulative cultural evolution in hunter-gatherers by simulating the accumulation of cultural innovations over the real Agta multicamp networks.
The origins of human cumulative culture: from the foraging niche to collective intelligence
The foraging niche perspective may explain why a complex gene-culture dual inheritance system evolved uniquely in humans and interprets the cultural, morphological and genetic origins of Homo sapiens as a process of recombination of innovations appearing in differentiated but interconnected populations.
High-resolution maps of hunter-gatherer social networks reveal human adaptation for cultural exchange
It is shown that strong friendships with non-kin optimize the global efficiency of their social networks thereby facilitating cultural exchange and that the adaptation for forming friendship ties appears early in development.
Male cooperation for breeding opportunities contributes to the evolution of multilevel societies
It is suggested that an ‘arms race’ between breeding males' collective defence against usurpation attempts by bachelor males and bachelor males' aggregative offence to obtain reproductive opportunities has selected for larger group size on both sides.
Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter–gatherer cooperation
This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter–gatherer band stability, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps to explore cooperation among the Agta.
The Dynamics of Human Cooperative Groups
Humans live in cooperative groups of varying scales and composition, from families to nations and international communities. Segregating into groups can provide benefits by alleviating individual
The Original Partnership Societies: Evolved Propensities for Equality, Prosociality, and Peace
This article focuses on what nomadic forager research suggests about human nature and examines how this ancestral form of human social organization is fundamentally partnership-oriented. Taking


Co-Residence Patterns in Hunter-Gatherer Societies Show Unique Human Social Structure
It is found that hunter-gatherers display a unique social structure where either sex may disperse or remain in their natal group, adult brothers and sisters often co-reside, and most individuals in residential groups are genetically unrelated, which suggests large social networks may help to explain why humans evolved capacities for social learning.
Hunter-Gatherer Inter-Band Interaction Rates: Implications for Cumulative Culture
Interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands are presented, showing high probabilities of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults and suggesting ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship.
Social Networks and Cooperation in Hunter-Gatherers
The social networks of the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers in Tanzania, are characterized, showing that Hadza networks have important properties also seen in modernized social networks, including a skewed degree distribution, degree assortativity, transitivity, reciprocity, geographic decay and homophily.
To give and to give not: The behavioral ecology of human food transfers
  • M. Gurven
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 2004
The transfer of food among group members is a ubiquitous feature of small-scale forager and forager-agricultural populations. The uniqueness of pervasive sharing among humans, especially among
Bernard Chapais: Primeval kinship. How pair-bonding gave birth to human society
The modern study of primate behavior has its roots in scientific traditions initiated by Kinji Imanishi in Japan and Sherwood Washburn in the United States. Both sought to understand the evolution of
High mobility explains demand sharing and enforced cooperation in egalitarian hunter-gatherers
It is shown through a simulation model that demand-sharing families that continuously move between camps in response to their energy income are able to survive in unpredictable environments typical of hunter-gatherers, while non- sharing families and sedentary families perish.
Cooperative breeding in South American hunter–gatherers
  • K. HillA. Hurtado
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2009
Demographic and food acquisition data show that most breeding pairs can expect food deficits owing to foraging luck, health disabilities and accumulating dependency ratio of offspring in middle age, and that extra-pair provisioning may be essential to the evolved human life history.
Lethal Aggression in Mobile Forager Bands and Implications for the Origins of War
Investigating lethal aggression in a sample of 21 mobile forager band societies derived systematically from the standard cross-cultural sample suggests that most incidents of lethal aggression among MFBS may be classified as homicides, a few others as feuds, and a minority as war.
The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation.
Because the human data fit this general primate pattern, the adoption of cooperative breeding by the authors' hominin ancestors also provides the most parsimonious explanation for the origin of human hyper-cooperation.
Inter‐group encounters and female transfer in mountain gorillas: Influence of group composition on male behavior
  • P. Sicotte
  • Biology
    American journal of primatology
  • 1993
This paper examines the behaviors used by male gorillas to influence female choice during inter‐group encounters to confirm that there are advantages to male cooperation in gorillas and raises the question of why such cooperation does not occur more often.