Sex differences in tuberculosis

  title={Sex differences in tuberculosis},
  author={David Hertz and Bianca Schneider},
  journal={Seminars in Immunopathology},
Tuberculosis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in humans and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is carried by an estimated two billion people globally and claims more than 1.5 million lives each year. Tuberculosis rates are significantly higher in men than in women, reflected by a male-to-female ratio for worldwide case notifications of 1.7. This phenomenon is not new and has been… 
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A review of sex differences in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.
  • C. Holmes, H. Hausler, P. Nunn
  • Medicine
    The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • 1998
The possibility that cases of tuberculosis among women are being under-reported in developing regions is raised, as epidemiological evidence from the pre-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) era shows that young to early-middle-aged women progress from infection to disease with greater frequency than do men.
Sex differences in the C57BL/6 model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
It is revealed that disease progression upon aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was accelerated in males resulting in increased morbidity and mortality compared to females, and the urgent need to include and separately analyze both sexes in future animal studies of Tb is emphasized.
The immune response in tuberculosis.
What the authors know about the immune response in tuberculosis, in human disease, and in a range of experimental models is summarized, all of which are essential to advancing the mechanistic knowledge base of the host-pathogen interactions that influence disease outcome.
Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review
The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection.
The convergent epidemiology of tuberculosis and human cytomegalovirus infection
It is hypothesized that active human cytomegalovirus infection due to recent infection, reinfection or reactivation plays an epidemiologically relevant role in the aetiology of tuberculosis by precipitating the progression from latent tuberculosis infection to disease.
Heterogeneity in tuberculosis
This Review draws on model systems and human data to discuss multiple facets of TB biology and their relationship to the overall heterogeneity observed in the human disease.
Gender Disparities in Latent Tuberculosis Infection in High-Risk Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study
Although the proportion of LTBI is higher in men, there is no significant disparity in terms of sex in LTBI among high-risk individuals after adjusting for age, smoking status, and other clinical factors.
Tuberculosis and HIV Co-Infection
This review highlights immunological events that may accelerate the development of one of the two diseases in the presence of the co-infecting organism and describes gaps in knowledge and needs for future studies to develop preventive measures against theTwo diseases.
Biological differences between the sexes and susceptibility to tuberculosis.
Evidence that biological differences between the sexes may also be important and can affect susceptibility to mycobacterial infection is discussed, with particular focus on how sex hormones modulate the immune responses necessary for resistance to tuberculosis.
Risk Factors for Tuberculosis
Emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level and specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are at an increased risk of TB infection and disease.