Sex differences in subregions of the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat

@article{Hines1992SexDI,
  title={Sex differences in subregions of the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat},
  author={Melissa Hines and Laura S. Allen and Roger A. Gorski},
  journal={Brain Research},
  year={1992},
  volume={579},
  pages={321-326}
}
Sex differences are described in subregions of two nuclei of the rat brain: the medical nucleus of the amygdala (MA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The volume of the posterodorsal region of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MApd) is approximately 85% greater and the volume of the encapsulated region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTenc) is approximately 97% greater in males than in females. The MApd and BNSTenc are distinct subregions of the MA and BNST… 
Sexual differentiation of projections from the principal nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis
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Ontogeny of bidirectional connections between the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the rat
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The findings suggest that projections from the MEApd through the stria terminalis to the BSTpr may be specified initially by a glial substrate and that return projections to the amygdala from the BST Pr develop secondary to its innervation by the ME Apd.
Regional Difference in Sex Steroid Action on Formation of Morphological Sex Differences in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus and Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis
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Estradiol signaling via ERα during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV.
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THE NEurONS OF HumAN BEd NuCLEuS OF THE STrIA TErmINALIS
TLDR
The results reveal that human bed nucleus of the stria terminalis presents cytomorphologically complex limbic structure, and its complexity is consistent with its very important role in behavioural responses to stress and anxiety states.
Neurons in the principal nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis provide a sexually dimorphic gabaergic input to the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus
TLDR
The results suggest that projections from BSTp neurons constitute a stable, sex-specific GABAergic input to the AVPV that is patterned permanently by perinatal hormone exposure.
Differential control of sex differences in estrogen receptor α in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus.
TLDR
A profound sex difference in estrogen receptor-α (ERα) immunoreactivity (IR) in the BNSTp is reported, with robust ERα IR in females and the near absence of labeling in males, and in AVPV a modest sex difference that was relatively insensitive to steroid manipulations in adulthood.
Development of sex differences in the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of mice: Role of Bax‐dependent cell death
TLDR
It is found that BNSTp volume and cell number do not differ between male and female wild‐type mice on postnatal days P3, P5, or P7, and this support the interpretation that the sex difference in BN STp cell number seen in adulthood is due to Bax‐dependent, sexually dimorphic cell death during the first week of life.
Sexually Dimorphic Formation of the Preoptic Area and the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis by Neuroestrogens
TLDR
This work discusses how neuroestrogens of testicular origin act in the perinatal period to organize the sexually dimorphic structures of the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the notion that testicular androgens that do not aromatize to estrogens can also induce significant effects on the sexuallyDimorphic formation of the POA and BNST.
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TLDR
It is possible that in human beings as well, gonadal hormones influence the sexual dimorphism in the BNST‐dspm and that this morphological difference, in part, underlies sexually dimorphic function.
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TLDR
Attention to the sex differences in these areas may help elucidate more precisely the neural basis for sexually dimorphic functions, as well as the basic mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and the brain.
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The data indicate that the nuclear volume is sexually different in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, and its differentiation occurs during the early postnatal period under the influence of the organizational action of sex steroids.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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