Sex differences in subregions of the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat

@article{Hines1992SexDI,
  title={Sex differences in subregions of the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat},
  author={Melissa Hines and Laura S. Allen and Roger A. Gorski},
  journal={Brain Research},
  year={1992},
  volume={579},
  pages={321-326}
}
Sexual differentiation of projections from the principal nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis
TLDR
The organization of projections from the BSTp suggests that it plays a particularly important role in regulating neuroendocrine function and that neurons in this nucleus may relay olfactory information to the hypothalamus differently in male and female rats.
Ontogeny of bidirectional connections between the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the rat
TLDR
The findings suggest that projections from the MEApd through the stria terminalis to the BSTpr may be specified initially by a glial substrate and that return projections to the amygdala from the BST Pr develop secondary to its innervation by the ME Apd.
Regional Difference in Sex Steroid Action on Formation of Morphological Sex Differences in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus and Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis
TLDR
Estradiol signaling via ERα during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV.
Galanin Immunoreactivity in Mouse Basal Forebrain: Sex Differences and Discrete Projections of Galanin-Containing Cells beyond the Blood-Brain Barrier
TLDR
Intraperitoneal injection of the retrograde tracer fluoro-gold in male mice resulted in uptake of fluoro -gold by selective GAL-IR cell groups in the basal forebrain suggesting that only some of these cell groups may project outside the blood-brain barrier whereas others may be involved in intracerebral neural transmission.
Genetic sex and the volumes of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell: original data and a review
TLDR
Findings complement previous reports of lateralized nucleus accumbens volume in humans, and suggest that this may possibly be driven via hemispheric differences in nucleus Accumbens core volume.
THE NEurONS OF HumAN BEd NuCLEuS OF THE STrIA TErmINALIS
TLDR
The results reveal that human bed nucleus of the stria terminalis presents cytomorphologically complex limbic structure, and its complexity is consistent with its very important role in behavioural responses to stress and anxiety states.
Differential control of sex differences in estrogen receptor α in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus.
TLDR
A profound sex difference in estrogen receptor-α (ERα) immunoreactivity (IR) in the BNSTp is reported, with robust ERα IR in females and the near absence of labeling in males, and in AVPV a modest sex difference that was relatively insensitive to steroid manipulations in adulthood.
Development of sex differences in the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of mice: Role of Bax‐dependent cell death
TLDR
It is found that BNSTp volume and cell number do not differ between male and female wild‐type mice on postnatal days P3, P5, or P7, and this support the interpretation that the sex difference in BN STp cell number seen in adulthood is due to Bax‐dependent, sexually dimorphic cell death during the first week of life.
Sexually Dimorphic Formation of the Preoptic Area and the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis by Neuroestrogens
TLDR
This work discusses how neuroestrogens of testicular origin act in the perinatal period to organize the sexually dimorphic structures of the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the notion that testicular androgens that do not aromatize to estrogens can also induce significant effects on the sexuallyDimorphic formation of the POA and BNST.
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References

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Sex difference in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the human brain
TLDR
It is possible that in human beings as well, gonadal hormones influence the sexual dimorphism in the BNST‐dspm and that this morphological difference, in part, underlies sexually dimorphic function.
Sexually dimorphic regions in the medial preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the guinea pig brain: a description and an investigation of their relationship to gonadal steroids in adulthood
TLDR
Attention to the sex differences in these areas may help elucidate more precisely the neural basis for sexually dimorphic functions, as well as the basic mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and the brain.
Autoradiographic localization of estrogen and androgen receptors in the sexually dimorphic area and other regions of the gerbil brain
TLDR
Autoradiography was used to localize sex hormone‐accumulating cells in the gerbil brain and found that androgen uptake was more widespread than estrogen uptake in the brainstem, and androgen accumulation differed from the pattern of estrogen accumulation in one way.
Sex differences in hormonal responses of vasopressin pathways in the rat brain.
TLDR
The results indicate that the sex difference in the steroid-sensitive AVP pathways depends on other factors besides circulating hormone levels in adulthood.
Evidence for the existence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the rat
TLDR
It is concluded that the marked sex difference in the volume of the SDN‐POA is due principally to an increase in the male of the total area of higher cell and neuronal density.
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