Sex differences in reasoning abilities: Surprising evidence that male–female ratios in the tails of the quantitative reasoning distribution have increased

@article{Lakin2013SexDI,
  title={Sex differences in reasoning abilities: Surprising evidence that male–female ratios in the tails of the quantitative reasoning distribution have increased},
  author={Joni M. Lakin},
  journal={Intelligence},
  year={2013},
  volume={41},
  pages={263-274}
}
  • J. Lakin
  • Published 1 July 2013
  • Psychology
  • Intelligence

Figures and Tables from this paper

Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test
The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate
Gender differences in individual variation in academic grades fail to fit expected patterns for STEM
TLDR
Comparing gender differences in academic grades from over 1.6 million students finds strong evidence for lower variation among girls than boys, and of higher average grades for girls, suggesting that greater variability is insufficient to explain male over-representation in STEM.
Sex differences in variability across nations in reading, mathematics and science: a meta-analytic extension of Baye and Monseur (2016)
A recent study by Baye and Monseur (Large Scale Assess Educ 4:1–16, 2016) using large, international educational data sets suggest that the “greater male variation hypothesis” is well supported.
Sex differences in the adult human brain
Sex differences in the human brain are of interest for many reasons: for example, there are sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits that
A 4-Year Longitudinal Study of the Sex-Creativity Relationship in Childhood, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood: Findings of Mean and Variability Analyses
  • Wu-jing He
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Front. Psychol.
  • 2018
TLDR
While the results revealed female superiority in childhood and early adolescence, male superiority was not found in adolescence and emerging adulthood and greater sex similarities and greater male variability were found based on mean and variability analyses, respectively.
Investigating and explaining sex differences in episodic memory
Sex differences can be seen in a lot of different areas, one of them being cognition where, among other things, men tend to perform better at more spatial tasks and women at more verbal. When it
Sex Differences in Episodic Memory Variance
TLDR
Results showed that men had larger variances than women in verbal episodic memory tasks as well as episodicMemory tasks having to do with spatial locations, and exploratory analyses suggest that they might come about because of measures not sufficiently controlled for ceiling effects.
The new science of cognitive sex differences
Men, women and STEM: Why the differences and what should be done?
It is a well-known and widely lamented fact that men outnumber women in a number of fields in STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths). The most commonly discussed explanations for the
Sex differences in the adult human brain: Evidence from 5,216 UK Biobank participants
TLDR
This large-scale characterisation of neurobiological sex differences provides a foundation for attempts to understand the causes of sex differences in brain structure and function, and their associated psychological and psychiatric consequences.
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 55 REFERENCES
Global Sex Differences in Test Score Variability
TLDR
This work states that in many countries, girls show superior performance in school examinations, which is also reflected in higher rates of attendance in tertiary education and in countries with a more gender-equal culture, the gender gap that is usually in favor of boys in average mathematics test scores is erased or even reversed in favour of girls.
Consistencies in sex differences on the Cognitive Abilities Test across countries, grades, test forms, and cohorts.
  • D. Lohman, J. Lakin
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The British journal of educational psychology
  • 2009
TLDR
An astonishing consistency in sex differences across countries, grades, cohorts, and test forms is shown and implications for the current debate about sex differences in quantitative reasoning abilities are discussed.
The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics
TLDR
It is concluded that early experience, biological factors, educational policy, and cultural context affect the number of women and men who pursue advanced study in science and math and that these effects add and interact in complex ways.
Sex Differences in Variability in Intellectual Abilities: A New Look at an Old Controversy
Contemporary research on sex differences in intellectual abilities has focused on male-female differences in average performance, implicitly assuming homogeneity of variance. To examine the validity
Sex Differences in Mathematical Reasoning Ability at Age 13: Their Status 20 Years Later
TLDR
Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability, which have policy implications for higher education and the world of work.
Gender differences in mathematics performance: a meta-analysis.
TLDR
It is concluded that gender differences in mathematics performance are small, and the lower performance of women in problem solving that is evident in high school requires attention.
Sex Differences in Variability in General Intelligence: A New Look at the Old Question
  • W. Johnson, A. Carothers, I. Deary
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2008
TLDR
Using two population-wide surveys of general intelligence in 11-year-olds in Scotland, it was shown that there were substantial departures from normality in the distribution, with less variability in the higher range than in the lower, and sex differences in variability did not appear to account for sex Differences in high-level achievement.
Gender differences in variability in intellectual abilities: A cross-cultural perspective
A cross-cultural quantitative review of contemporary findings of gender differences in variability in verbal, mathematical, and spatial abilities was conducted to assess the generalizability of U.S.
Sex differences in mental test scores, variability, and numbers of high-scoring individuals.
TLDR
An analysis of mental test scores from six studies that used national probability samples provided evidence that although average sex differences have been generally small and stable over time, the test scores of males consistently have larger variance.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...