Sex differences in odor identification ability: A cross-cultural analysis

  title={Sex differences in odor identification ability: A cross-cultural analysis},
  author={Richard L. Doty and S L Applebaum and Hiroyuki Zusho and R. Gregg Settle},

Odor identification in young and elderly African-Americans and Caucasians.

  • R. E. JonesC. BrownJ. Ship
  • Medicine
    Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry
  • 1995
Overall, African-Americans had lower UPSIT scores and age- and gender-adjusted percentile rank scores compared with Caucasians, but these differences were significant only among younger subjects.

Cross-cultural comparison of data using the odor stick identification test for Japanese (OSIT-J).

Although the 13-odorant OSIT-J was found to be suitable for testing US populations, elimination of five test odorants that were unfamiliar to US subjects significantly enhanced the test's effectiveness, emphasizing the importance of identifying test odorant that may have a cultural bias.

Differences and Similarities in the Perception of Everyday Odors: A Japanese‐German Cross‐Cultural Study

Positive correlations between familiarity and pleasantness, strength of hedonic judgment and intensity, and familiarity and intensity were also found in both groups and for most individuals.

Identification of odors of edible and nonedible stimuli as affected by age and gender

Women in the young-old group performed better than men, whereas no gender differences were found in the other two age groups, and the data obtained in this study will be useful for further perceptual and memory studies conducted in the olfactory modality with young as well as with older participants.

Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing

Interestingly, controlling for odor naming ability resulted in that the observed sex difference in episodic odor memory for familiar odors disappeared, which suggests that women's superiority in episodi odor memory is largely mediated by their higher proficiency in odor identification.

Gender differences in the retention of Swahili names for unfamiliar odors.

The results suggest that under conditions where experience is equated, female naming advantage may result from better consolidation of the learned material.

Differences in perception of everyday odors: a Japanese-German cross-cultural study.

A positive relationship was found between pleasantness and judgement of stimuli as edible, suggesting that culture-specific experiences-particularly of foods-may significantly influence odor perception.

Cross-Cultural Administration of an Odor Discrimination Test

This study compares the discrimination scores of 169 Polish people with the scores of 99 Tsimane’, Bolivian Amerindians and suggests that when a discrimination task is chosen as the form of olfactory testing, some additional variables need to be controlled.

Sex Differences in Human Olfaction: A Meta-Analysis

The results of the meta-analysis indicate that women generally outperform men in olfactory abilities, and do so in every aspect of olfaction analyzed in the current study.




There was a highly significant difference between sexes in hedonic scores, women finding the odor more unpleasant, but not in threshold values, and females to be more sensitive than males.

Smell identification ability: changes with age.

Smell identification ability was measured in 1955 persons ranging in age from 5 to 99 years. On the average, women outperformed men at all ages, and nonsmokers outperformed smokers. Peak performance

Sex and race differences in food preferences of military personnel.

Sex and race differences in food preferences of military personnel.

The food preferences and selections of military personnel were studied to determine the effects of race and sex on food habits and to provide recommendations for menu planning. A food preference

Internal consistency and short-term test-retest reliability of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test

Measures of internal consistency and short-terrn test-retest reliability of the University of Penn- sylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were determined in 69 people who showed a broad range of

Changes in the intensity and pleasantness of human vaginal odors during the menstrual cycle

The results indicate that human vaginal odors change slightly in both pleasantness and intensity during the menstrual cycle, but do not support the notion that such odors are particularly attractive to humans in an in vitro test situation.

Age and Sex Differences in Pure‐Tone Thresholds

The results of this study indicate that, in general, only minor differences exist between the average thresholds of right and left ears, but that women have more sensitive hearing than men and show less intersubject variability.