Sex differences in autoimmune disease

  title={Sex differences in autoimmune disease},
  author={Caroline C. Whitacre},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
  • C. Whitacre
  • Published 1 September 2001
  • Biology, Medicine, Psychology
  • Nature Immunology
Autoimmune diseases are more prevalent in women than men. A new interest in understanding the biology of this difference as well as funding opportunities have focused attention on research priorities in sex differences. 
Women and Autoimmune Diseases
Recent evidence indicates that sex hormones may exacerbate autoimmune diseases, particularly in women, by increasing the adjuvant effect of infections.
Sex and Gender Differences in Autoimmune Diseases
This research highlights the need to understand more fully the role that gender plays in the development of immune and rheumatological diseases.
Sex differences in monocyte expression of IL-6: Role of autonomic mechanisms
Sex differences in the prevalence of inflammatory disorders exist, perhaps due to sex differences in cellular mechanisms that contribute to proinflammatory cytokine activity. This study analyzed se...
Factors Which Predispose to the Onset of Autoimmune Disease
This project was carried out in Dr. Caroline Whitacre's Lab in the Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics (College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University).
Can we explain the higher prevalence of autoimmune disease in women?
The notion that ADs affect females more frequently than men has been striking clinicians for many years, and this predominance may vary from 9:1 in systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis, down to 1: 1 in inflammatory bowl disease and Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Testosterone: more than having the guts to win the Tour de France.
Gender and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
This review focuses on the gender and sex dimorphic disease profile and outlines the potential mechanisms ofsex-specific pathogenesis in the view of current understanding of sex-specific immunity.
Age of puberty and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a population based study
This work has investigated whether or not the age of puberty influences the risk of developing MS in a population‐based cohort and found that it does not.


A Gender Gap in Autoimmunity
In a Perspective in this issue, Caroline Whitacre and her fellow members of the Task Force on Gender, Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmunity explain what the authors currently know about gender differences in autoimmunities and discuss priorities for future research.
Estrogen-mediated immunosuppression in autoimmune diseases
The mechanism of estrogen-induced immune suppression both in human autoimmune diseases and their experimental animal model counterparts is discussed and the mechanisms of estrogen and anti-estrogens are discussed in relation to their possible use as future therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents.
Age and sex associations of 40 autoimmune diseases.
  • P. Beeson
  • Biology, Medicine
    The American journal of medicine
  • 1994
A sex difference in immunologic responsiveness.
Serum levels of E. coli hemagglutinins were found to be slightly higher in females in tests of 120 hospitalized infants age 6 to 14 months. The female antibody response to rubella vaccine was also
Testosterone therapy ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and induces a T helper 2 bias in the autoantigen-specific T lymphocyte response.
Data indicate that testosterone exerts a protective effect in EAE that is mediated at least in part by enhanced production of IL-10 by autoantigen-specific T lymphocytes.
Microchimerism: implications for autoimmune disease
Initial studies lend support to the hypothesis that microchimerism is involved in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases and further understanding potentially may lead to new therapeutic strategies.
Neuroendocrine-immune system interactions and autoimmunity.
  • R. Wilder
  • Medicine, Biology
    Annual review of immunology
  • 1995
These factors and dysfunctional communication between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems appear to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases in the Lewis and BB rats, the OS chicken, and the NOD, MRL, NZB, NZW, and NZB/NZW F1 mice.
Pregnancy does not cause systemic lupus erythematosus to worsen.
Worsening of SLE is uncommon in pregnancy, and prophylactic prednisone therapy is unnecessary, according to this evaluation of 80 pregnant women with SLE.
Estriol ameliorates autoimmune demyelinating disease
Estriol as a hormone involved in immune changes during pregnancy may provide a basis for the novel therapeutic use of estriol for MS and other putative Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases that improve during late pregnancy.
Genetic control of the CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio in humans
Findings indicate that the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is genetically controlled in humans.