Sex differences in academic achievement are not related to political, economic, or social equality

  title={Sex differences in academic achievement are not related to political, economic, or social equality},
  author={Gijsbert Stoet and David C. Geary},

Gender achievement and social, political and economic equality: a European perspective

Abstract Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM

The Relation Between Gender Egalitarian Values and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

A previously underappreciated role of cultural values in moderating gender gaps in academic achievement is suggested, as more gender egalitarian values were associated with improved performance of boys relative to girls in the same countries.

Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

It is shown that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries, and the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns.

Sex-specific academic ability and attitude patterns in students across developed countries

The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

It was shown that girls performed similarly to or better than boys in science in two of every three countries, and in nearly all countries, more girls appeared capable of college-level STEM study than had enrolled and these sex differences in academic strengths and attitudes toward science correlated with the STEM graduation gap.


The gender gap in maths favouring boys at school has gained considerable attention throughout the last decades. Since maths skills are critical for STEM academic studies and for properly integrating

A simplified approach to measuring national gender inequality

It is argued that the disparities, when they are found, are related to the sexual division of labor in poorly developed countries as well as the underinvestment in preventative health care in more developed nations.

Gender differences in mathematics outcomes at different levels of locality to inform policy and practice

This paper reports research into the relationship between personal and contextual variables and gendered differences in students’ attainment in mathematics that take account of ‘place’ at different

Societal inequalities amplify gender gaps in math

A strong and robust relationship is found and tests suggest that it is causal: Countries that are generally more egalitarian, or that have institutions more conductive to equality, have a lower gender performance gap in math, suggesting that this gap is partly shaped by more general societal inequalities.


The relationship between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics vanished after PISA 2003, and this study used five waves of country-level PISA data and found no evidence to support this argument.



Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: a meta-analysis.

Gender equity in school enrollment, women's share of research jobs, and women's parliamentary representation were the most powerful predictors of cross-national variability in gender gaps in math.

Sex Differences in Mathematics and Reading Achievement Are Inversely Related: Within- and Across-Nation Assessment of 10 Years of PISA Data

Analysis of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries, finds no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations’ gender equality indicators, and paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated withsex differences in reading.

Gender, Culture, and Sex-Typed Cognitive Abilities

National gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) were reported, and girls outperform boys in reading literacy and boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA.

An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics

We document and analyze the emergence of a substantial gender gap in mathematics in the early years of schooling using a large, recent, and nationally representative panel of children in the United

Gender, culture, and mathematics performance

  • J. HydeJ. Mertz
  • Sociology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2009
Mounting evidence is reviewed that both the magnitude of mean math gender differences and the frequency of identification of gifted and profoundly gifted females significantly correlate with sociocultural factors, including measures of gender equality across nations.

Gender and Student Achievement in English Schools

The widening gap between the average educational achievement of boys and girls has been the subject of much discussion. This gap is especially controversial for students taking national exams at the

Investigating the Patterns of Differential Attainment of Boys and Girls at School

Recent research on the differential attainment of boys and girls at school has produced findings in significant contrast to the standard account on which most previous explanations of the differences

Debunking Myths about Gender and Mathematics Performance

Girls have now reached parity with boys in mean mathematics performance in the United States, even in high school, where a significant gap in mean performance existed in the 1970s, and this gender-stratified hypothesis is consistent with several recent findings.

Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences.