Sex differences in Alzheimer's disease

@article{Laws2018SexDI,
  title={Sex differences in Alzheimer's disease},
  author={Keith R. Laws and Karen Irvine and Tim M. Gale},
  journal={Current Opinion in Psychiatry},
  year={2018},
  volume={31},
  pages={133–139}
}
Purpose of review Women are more impacted by Alzheimer's disease than men – they are at significantly greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and recent research shows that they also appear to suffer a greater cognitive deterioration than men at the same disease stage. The purpose of this article is to review recent studies on examining sex differences in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings We searched electronically for articles, reviews and meta-analyses… 

Sex differences in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

TLDR
An overview of evidence attesting to the poorer cognitive profiles in women than in men at the same stage of AD is provided, and reasons posited for this female disadvantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, greater cognitive reserve in men, and the influence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele.

Alzheimer's pathogenic mechanisms and underlying sex difference.

TLDR
An increasing body of evidence from preclinical and clinical studies as well as the complications in estimating incidence support the sex-specific biological mechanisms in diverging AD risk as an important adjunct explanation to the epidemiologic perspective.

Reserve in Alzheimer's disease: update on the concept, functional mechanisms and sex differences.

  • M. Ewers
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current opinion in psychiatry
  • 2019
TLDR
Neuroimaging studies have provided substantial evidence for putative brain mechanisms supporting reserve in Alzheimer's disease, however, the findings are still somewhat disparate and call for the development of unifying and testable theory of functional and structural brain properties that subserve reserve.

Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease: Understanding the molecular impact

Inflammation in Alzheimer's Disease: Do Sex and APOE Matter?

TLDR
Investigating underlying physiological inflammatory mechanisms that may help explain why there are sex differences in AD and APOEɛ4 carriers support that the underlying physiological changes during aging differ by sex and tissue origin.

Subjective Cognitive Decline is a Better Marker for Future Cognitive Decline in Females than in Males

Background: The identification of biomarkers and other mechanisms for early detection of Alzheimer's disease is critical to the development and further advancement of therapies and interventions

Inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: do sex and APOE matter?

TLDR
Underlying physiological inflammatory mechanisms that may help explain why there are sex differences in AD and APOEε4 carriers are investigated to support that the underlying physiological changes during aging differ by sex and tissue origin.

Sex-dependent autosomal effects on clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease.

TLDR
The results indicate that revealing sex-dependent genetic architecture requires the consideration of temporal processes of Alzheimer's disease, and have strong implications not only for the genetic underpinning of Alzheimer’s disease but also for how to estimate sex- dependent polygenic effects for clinical use.
...

References

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Sex differences in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

Greater cognitive deterioration in women than men with Alzheimer's disease: A meta analysis

TLDR
A meta-analysis of neurocognitive data from 15 studies revealed a consistent male advantage on verbal and visuospatial tasks and tests of episodic and semantic memory, and it was shown that age, education level, and dementia severity did not significantly predict the male advantage.

Gender Differences in Alzheimer Disease: Brain Atrophy, Histopathology Burden, and Cognition

TLDR
Compared clinical and pathological AD severity in 1028 deceased subjects with full neuropathological examinations, it was found that AD-control brain weight differences were significantly greater for females, even after adjustment for age, disease duration, and comorbid conditions.

Gender-Specific Differences in Cognitive Profiles of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Results of the Prospective Dementia Registry Austria (PRODEM-Austria).

TLDR
There is an interaction between gender and cognitive function, most notable in verbal episodic memory; female patients in the early stage of AD performed worse on verbal episode memory than men.

The relationships between age, sex, and the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis.

TLDR
The acceleration of incidence rates for AD and dementia slows down with the increase in age, although there is no evidence of a rate decline, and women are at higher risk of developing AD than men.

Neuropsychological differences between men and women with Alzheimer's disease

TLDR
It was partially confirmed that women with AD evidenced greater impairment than men with AD on three of six neuropsychological measures even after potentially confounding variables were controlled.

Considering Sex and Gender in Alzheimer Disease and Other Dementias

TLDR
Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance the understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions.