Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies

@article{Sahara2011SexCE,
  title={Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies},
  author={Ken Sahara and Atsuo Yoshido and W. Traut},
  journal={Chromosome Research},
  year={2011},
  volume={20},
  pages={83-94}
}
Lepidoptera, i.e. moths and butterflies, have a female heterogametic sex chromosome system, with most females having a WZ constitution while males are ZZ. Besides this predominant WZ/ZZ system, Z/ZZ, WZ1Z2/Z1Z1Z2Z2 and W1W2Z/ZZ systems also occur. Sex is determined by an unknown W-linked gene or genes in Bombyx mori, but by dosage-dependent and equally unknown Z-linked genes in all Z/ZZ species. The female heterogametic sex chromosome system has been conserved for at least 180 MY in the… 
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