Sex Hormones and Risk of Liver Tumor

  title={Sex Hormones and Risk of Liver Tumor},
  author={Lydia Giannitrapani and Maurizio Soresi and Emanuele La Spada and Melchiorre Cervello and Natale D’alessandro and Giuseppe Montalto},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
Abstract:  The liver is morphologically and functionally modulated by sex hormones. Long‐term use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) can induce both benign (hemangioma, adenoma, and focal nodular hyperplasia [FNH]) and malignant (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) hepatocellular tumors. Hepatic adenomas (HAs) are rare, benign neoplasms usually occurring in young women, the development and the complications of which have been related to the strength of OCs and the… 
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Elevated serum testosterone, together with decreased serum estrogens, may promote the development of HCC in cirrhosis and be associated with increased risk of hepatitis C virus origin.
Sex hormones in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
The data confirm that in LC and HCC there is an increase in serum EII levels, which can be important in the genesis of liver carcinoma, and Progressive serum reduction in T may be due to increased androgen uptake and progressive accumulation within the neoplastic mass.
Liver-cell adenomas associated with use of oral contraceptives.
Long-term use of oral contraceptives, especially those containing a high total dose of steroids or mestranol as the synthetic estrogen, should be balanced against risks of side effects of the drugs.
Oral contraceptives and the risk of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a case-control study.
This study confirms previous clinical observations, and provides a quantitative estimate of the association between use of oral contraceptives and focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver.
Epidemiology of hepatocellular adenoma. The role of oral contraceptive use.
A case-control study of hepatocellular adenoma, a serious though nonmalignant liver tumor, was conducted by the Center for Disease Control and the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, finding that increasing duration of OC use increases the risk of HCA.
Possible association between benign hepatomas and oral contraceptives.
7 case reports of women with benign hepatic adenoma suggest that, since all of the women were taking oral contraceptives (OCs), there may be an association between ingestion of exogenous hormones
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Routine liver ultrasound follow up in women with hepatic haemangiomas receiving hormone therapy appears appropriate and seems to be influenced by both endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones although significant enlargement occurs only in a minority of patients.
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Although in the United Kingdom primary liver cancer remains an exceptionally rare disease, especially in young women, further research on the role of oral contraceptives is needed in those countries where it is a much more common disease.