Sex Differences in Infants’ Visual Interest in Toys

  title={Sex Differences in Infants’ Visual Interest in Toys},
  author={Gerianne M. Alexander and Teresa Wilcox and Rebecca J Woods},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
Evidence indicating that sex-linked toy preferences exist in two nonhuman primate species support the hypothesis that developmental sex differences such as those observed in children’s object preferences are shaped in part by inborn factors. If so, then preferences for sex-linked toys may emerge in children before any self-awareness of gender identity and gender–congruent behavior. In order to test this hypothesis, interest in a doll and a toy truck was measured in 30 infants ranging in age… 
Infants’ Preferences for Toys, Colors, and Shapes: Sex Differences and Similarities
The sex similarities in infants’ preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.
Factors affecting infant toy preferences: Age, gender, experience, motor development, and parental attitude.
A range of factors influence gendered toy preferences and suggest that nurture plays an important role in the emergence of gender-related preferences in infancy.
Developmental Stability in Gender-Typed Preferences Between Infancy and Preschool Age
It is suggested that gender-typed object preferences present during the 1st year of life may represent the developmental precursors of gender-TYped play preferences observed later in childhood.
Children’s Gender-Typed Toy Interests: Does Propulsion Matter?
Overall, gender differences in children’s interest in toys as a function of propulsion properties were not found in the three experiments within this study.
Parents’ Influence on Infants’ Gender-Typed Toy Preferences
It is found that infants displayed gender-typical toy preferences at 12 ½, but not 5 months, a pattern characteristic of previous studies, and the types of toys present in the home predicted preferences, suggesting that at-home exposure to toys may be influential in the development of toy preferences.
Sex Differences in Adults’ Relative Visual Interest in Female and Male Faces, Toys, and Play Styles
It is speculated that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflectsex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.
Sex Differences in Children's Toy Preferences: A Systematic Review, Meta-Regression, and Meta-Analysis.
From an early age, most children choose to play with toys typed to their own gender. In order to identify variables that predict toy preference, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies
Experience-independent sex differences in newborn macaques: Females are more social than males
Human females exhibit greater social interest and skills relative to males, appearing in infancy, suggesting biological roots; however, male and female infants may be treated differently, potentially


Infants' visual preference for sex-congruent babies, children, toys and activities: A longitudinal study.
Sex differences in social behaviour emerge as early as 2 years of age and gender schema theorists have suggested that preverbal infants possess ‘tacit’ knowledge of gender which informs their
Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children
An Evolutionary Perspective of Sex-Typed Toy Preferences: Pink, Blue, and the Brain
  • G. Alexander
  • Psychology, Biology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2003
Large sex differences in children's toy preferences are attributed to gender group identification and social learning. The proposal outlined in this paper is that contemporary conceptual categories
Gender stereotyping in infancy: Visual preferences for and knowledge of gender-stereotyped toys in the second year
Infants’ visual preferences for gender-stereotyped toys and their knowledge of stereotyped toys were examined in two experiments using an adaptation of the preferential looking paradigm. Girls and
Sex differences in response to children's toys in nonhuman primates (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus)
Pink or blue: Environmental gender stereotypes in the first two years of life
The physical environment of 120 girls and boys was compared in order to study the emergence of gender differences in infancy. Three age groups were investigated, 5, 13, and 25 months, with 40
Relation of Preschool Sex-Typing to Intellectual Performance in Elementary School
Children who had been observed in preschool when 3 yr. old using an observation schedule (Fagot & Patterson, 1969) consisting of 28 play behaviors were assigned interest scores on the basis of
Sex differences in 1-, 3-, and 5-year-olds' toy-choice in a structured play-session.
The results showed that feminine toys became less interesting for both girls and boys with increasing age, and the present study showed no consistent effects of play-status.