Sex Change in the Female Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus , Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints

@article{Gibbs1988SexCI,
  title={Sex Change in the Female Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus , Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints},
  author={Peter Edwin Gibbs and P. L. Pascoe and Gary R. Burt},
  journal={Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
  year={1988},
  volume={68},
  pages={715-731}
}
Imposex, the development of a penis and vas deferens in the female (Smith, 1971) is known to occur in over 30 species of marine gastropods but, to date, in only one species has this syndrome been demonstrated to have a serious deleterious effect. This species is the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus L. Both field and laboratory observations have provided conclusive evidence that imposex in N. lapillus is initiated by tributyltin (TBT), used as a biocide in antifouling paints, at concentrations in… 
Reproductive Failure in the Gastropod Nucella Lapillus Associated with Imposex Caused by Tributyltin Pollution: A Review
TLDR
The evidence that TBT pollution is responsible for the disappearance of N. lapillus in areas close to centers of boating activity is summarized.
A Male genital defect in the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus (Neogastropoda), favouring survival in a TBT-polluted area
TLDR
The evidence points to Dumpton Syndrome being a genetic disorder which has lessened the sterilizing effect of imposex and thereby has permitted the survival of this isolated enclave in an area of high TBT pollution.
The Dog – Whelk, Nucella Lapillus (L.) On The Rocky Shores Of Gower Peninsula, U.K. After The 1987 Tributyltin Restrictive Legislation.
The occurrence of imposex female Nucella lapillus (L.) on the Gower Peninsula in 1992 with little development of the vas deferens (VDS) and very small relative penis size (RPS) suggests that,
Appearance of a genetically-based pollution resistance in a marine gastropod, Nucella lapillus, in south-west Brittany: a new case of Dumpton syndrome
TLDR
DS is now, for the first time, observed at some locations where present TBT levels are low and some normal females lack penis development, indirect tools such as molecular probe are now needed to further survey those areas where DS and TBT pollution may interact as, for example, in south-west Brittany.
Imposex in the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.) in Icelandic waters
TLDR
The presence of imposex in Icelandic waters indicates that tributyltin pollution is widely distributed even in a fairly remote northern environment.
The morphological expression of imposex in Hinia reticulata (Gastropoda: Buccinidae): a potential indicator of tributultin pollution
TLDR
Based on the way imposex develops in this species the VDS is recommended as the most valid index for TBT biomonitoring and only in highly polluted areas should the uncubed RPS be used as a second index.
OVIDUCT MALFORMATION AS A STERILISING EFFECT OF TRIBUTYLTIN (TBT)-INDUCED IMPOSEX IN OCENEBRA ERINACEA (GASTROPODA: MURICIDAE)
TLDR
The disruption of the early ontogeny of the female reproductive tract, which leads to adult sterility, can be interpreted as an subtle effect of masculinizati on induced by TBT exposure.
The Evidence of Imposex in Turbo sp. from Ujungpiring Waters of Jepara
TLDR
The results showed that the ratio male and female was 1.13 : 1, and the frequency of imposex females was 64.58%, and the relative penis size were longer in imposex female than in male.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Fully-developed imposex causes blockage of the oviduct, preventing release of egg capsules; this reproductive failure and concomitant lack of recruitment has led to the decline of populations to the point of extinction in areas heavily contaminated by TBT-containing antifouling paints.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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