Sex Change in the Female Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus , Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints

  title={Sex Change in the Female Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus , Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints},
  author={Peter Edwin Gibbs and P. L. Pascoe and Gary R. Burt},
  journal={Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
Imposex, the development of a penis and vas deferens in the female (Smith, 1971) is known to occur in over 30 species of marine gastropods but, to date, in only one species has this syndrome been demonstrated to have a serious deleterious effect. This species is the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus L. Both field and laboratory observations have provided conclusive evidence that imposex in N. lapillus is initiated by tributyltin (TBT), used as a biocide in antifouling paints, at concentrations in… 
Reproductive Failure in the Gastropod Nucella Lapillus Associated with Imposex Caused by Tributyltin Pollution: A Review
The evidence that TBT pollution is responsible for the disappearance of N. lapillus in areas close to centers of boating activity is summarized.
A Male genital defect in the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus (Neogastropoda), favouring survival in a TBT-polluted area
The evidence points to Dumpton Syndrome being a genetic disorder which has lessened the sterilizing effect of imposex and thereby has permitted the survival of this isolated enclave in an area of high TBT pollution.
The Dog – Whelk, Nucella Lapillus (L.) On The Rocky Shores Of Gower Peninsula, U.K. After The 1987 Tributyltin Restrictive Legislation.
The occurrence of imposex female Nucella lapillus (L.) on the Gower Peninsula in 1992 with little development of the vas deferens (VDS) and very small relative penis size (RPS) suggests that,
Appearance of a genetically-based pollution resistance in a marine gastropod, Nucella lapillus, in south-west Brittany: a new case of Dumpton syndrome
DS is now, for the first time, observed at some locations where present TBT levels are low and some normal females lack penis development, indirect tools such as molecular probe are now needed to further survey those areas where DS and TBT pollution may interact as, for example, in south-west Brittany.
Imposex in the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.) in Icelandic waters
The presence of imposex in Icelandic waters indicates that tributyltin pollution is widely distributed even in a fairly remote northern environment.
The morphological expression of imposex in Hinia reticulata (Gastropoda: Buccinidae): a potential indicator of tributultin pollution
Based on the way imposex develops in this species the VDS is recommended as the most valid index for TBT biomonitoring and only in highly polluted areas should the uncubed RPS be used as a second index.
The disruption of the early ontogeny of the female reproductive tract, which leads to adult sterility, can be interpreted as an subtle effect of masculinizati on induced by TBT exposure.
The Evidence of Imposex in Turbo sp. from Ujungpiring Waters of Jepara
The results showed that the ratio male and female was 1.13 : 1, and the frequency of imposex females was 64.58%, and the relative penis size were longer in imposex female than in male.


Reproductive Failure in Populations of the Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus , Caused by Imposex Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints
It would appear that the accumulation of aborted capsules within the pallial oviduct eventually causes the premature death of the female and is evident from the high incidence of females containing aborted capsules in declining populations close to sources of tributyltin contamination.
The use of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus , as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination
The incidence and intensity of imposex have since increased markedly in the same populations and that the phenomenon is widespread around south-west England is demonstrated.
The effects of tributyltin (TBT) accumulation on adult dog-whelks, Nucella lapillus : long-term field and laboratory experiments
Populations of the gastropod, Nucella lapillus (L.), normally one of the commonest of rocky-shore macroinvertebrates, have recently suffered from declining numbers and that imposex was almost certainly caused by tributyltin (TBT) compounds leached from ships' antifouling paints.
TBT Paints and the Demise of the Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus (Gastropoda)
Fully-developed imposex causes blockage of the oviduct, preventing release of egg capsules; this reproductive failure and concomitant lack of recruitment has led to the decline of populations to the point of extinction in areas heavily contaminated by TBT-containing antifouling paints.
A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Tri-N-Butyltin Chloride and Five other Organotin Compounds in Promoting the Development of Imposex in the Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus
Since development is direct and there is no planktonic stage, N. lapillus has a very limited capacity for dispersion: thus the sterilization of females heralds the almost certain decline of so affected populations.
The decline of the gastropod Nucella lapillus around south-west England: evidence for the effect of tributyltin from antifouling paints
The incidence of ‘imposex’, the induction of male sex characters in the female, is widespread, that all populations are affected to some degree and that the phenomenon is most prevalent along the south (Channel) coast.
The Genital Ducts of Some British Stenoglossan Prosobranchs
The foregoing pages include an account of the anatomy and histology of the male and female genital ducts of Ocenebra erinacea, Nucella lapillus, Nassarius reticulatus and Buccinum undatum.
Spermatogenesis and the Structure of the Mature Sperm in Nucella Lapillus (L)
Staining with fast green before and after treatment with Van Slyke reagent indicates a change from lysine- rich to arginine-rich histone in the maturing spermatid.
The distribution and potential toxic effects of TBT in UK estuaries during 1986
The concentrations of butyltin compounds in seawater were measured at nine sites in the UK during 1986. In popular yachting centres concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) ranged from less than