Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification

  title={Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification},
  author={Lorna Wing and Judith Gould},
  journal={Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders},
  • L. WingJ. Gould
  • Published 1 March 1979
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
The prevalence, in children aged under 15, of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in an area of London. A “socially impaired” group (more than half of whom were severely retarded) and a comparison group of “sociable severely mentally retarded” children were identified. Mutism or echolalia, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors were found in almost all the socially impaired children, but to a less marked extent in… 

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  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychiatry Research
  • 1981

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  • L. Wing
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 1981
It is hypothesized that the socially impaired lack certain abilities that are inborn in normal children and the sociable mentally retarded: namely, the capacity to produce and monitor the normal speciesspecific preverbal sounds, the drive to explore the environment and form concepts to explain experiences, and the ability to recognize that other human beings are of special interest and importance.

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Significant increase in impairment over time within the socially impaired group and implications for a further follow-up study are discussed.

A Comparison of Social Skills Profiles in Intellectually Disabled Adults With and Without ASD

The results support the notions that social impairment remains a distinct feature of ASD in adults with ID, that autism and PDD-NOS are two conditions on the same spectrum, and that this spectrum is relevant for adults withID.

A Comparison of Social Skills in Adults with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and Mental Retardation

Special treatment needs of institutionalized adults with autism appear warranted along with a need to clarify further the differences between PDDNOS and mental retardation.

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  • L. Wing
  • Psychology, Medicine
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1980
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Male children were found to have better level of intelligence and verbal communication compared with female counterparts, and there was no significant difference in social quotient, activity level and non-verbal communication between male and female children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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Chronicity of Challenging Behaviours in People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and/or Autism: A Total Population Sample

“Abnormal” behaviours tended to reduce with age and were associated with poorer language skills and poorer quality of social interaction, and individuals with most abnormal behaviours at time 1, tended to have most at time 2.



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A small group of children with “repetitive” speech and stereotyped play is identified and the relationship with childhood autism is considered and the educational implications of the findings are discussed.

Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children

SummaryData concerning 32 autistic children identified in a previously reported survey of the County of Middlesex made in 1963/64 are presented, in comparison with a group of 22 non-autistic

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  • L. WingJ. Gould
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia
  • 1978
The design, administration, and scoring of the first edition of the Children's Handicaps, Behavior & Skills (HBS) structured interview schedule, intended to elicit information concerning mentally

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The possibility that the nature of the autistic disorder may differ according to the presence or absence of associated mental retardation needs to be taken into account in planning studies of etiology.

Psychotic behavior in children under the institutions for the Mentally Retarded in Denmark

The distributions of the children in regard to developmental retardation, organic brain damage, and psychiatric diagnoses were investigated and conclusions regarding guidelines for reorganization of present services and establishment of new services are proposed.

Autism in children with congenital rubella

  • S. Chess
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia
  • 1971
It is argued that these data support the concept of organic causation of the syndrome of autism and are compared with that found in two epidemiological studies and also with the rate indicated by other centers studying rubella children.

Language, communication, and the use of symbols in normal and autistic children

  • D. RicksL. Wing
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia
  • 1975
The characteristics of language and other forms of communication in normal and autistic children are described and the extent to which each group can comprehend and use spoken and nonspoken language and also develop inner language is compared.

The prevalence of early childhood autism: comparison of administrative and epidemiological studies.

The results of surveys and inquiries to identify autistic children, carried out in England and Wales, the U.S.A. and Denmark, are compared and inquiries that counted diagnosed cases only or relied upon local authority records produced much lower prevalence rates for the autistic syndrome.

Early infantile autism and autistic psychopathy

It is tried to assign to autistic psychopathy a definite place in psychiatric nosology and to delineate sharply the differences between the essential characteristics of it and of early infantile autism.

Follow-up report on autism in congenital rubella

  • S. Chess
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia
  • 1977
Examination of the data suggested that the rubella virus was the primary etiologic agent, and it was hypothesized that the course of autism was that of a chronic infection in which recovery, chronicity, improvement, worsening, and delayed appearance of the autistic syndrome all were found.