We estimated the frequency of clinically diagnosed Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (CTX) in Blantyre District, Malawi. Cases were detected by passive surveillance at 22 health centers from March 2001 through September 2002. Denominators were estimated from the Malawi national census for Blantyre District and the frequency of SP and CTX use reported in five household surveys. Crude rates of adverse reactions were estimated to be 1.2 per 100,000 exposures for SP and 1.5 per 100,000 exposures for CTX. Rates were higher in adults (1.7 cases per 100,000 SP exposures and 2.6 cases per 100,000 CTX exposures) and in persons positive for human immunodeficiency virus (4.9 cases per 100,000 SP exposures and 8.4 cases per 100,000 CTX exposures). Infrequent treatment doses with SP are associated with a low risk of an adverse cutaneous reaction, and SP can be recommended for treatment of malaria in areas where P. falciparum is susceptible.