Severe Limits on Variations of the Speed of Light with Frequency

  title={Severe Limits on Variations of the Speed of Light with Frequency},
  author={Bradley E. Schaefer},
  journal={Physical Review Letters},
  • B. Schaefer
  • Published 29 October 1998
  • Physics, Materials Science
  • Physical Review Letters
Explosive astrophysical events at high redshift can be used to place severe limits on the fractional variation in the speed of light with frequency ( $\ensuremath{\Delta}c/c$), the photon mass ( ${m}_{\ensuremath{\gamma}}$), and the energy scale of quantum gravity ( ${E}_{\mathrm{QG}}$). I find $\ensuremath{\Delta}c/cl6.3\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{\ensuremath{-}21}$ based on the simultaneous arrival of a flare in GRB 930229 with a rise time of $220\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}30… 

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