Chloroquine susceptibility and reversibility in a Plasmodium falciparum genetic cross.
The lethal form of human malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is virtually uncontrollable in many areas because of the development of drug resistance, in particular chloroquine resistance (CQR). CQR is biologically similar to the multiple drug resistance phenotype (MDR) of mammalian tumour cells, as both involve expulsion of drug from the cell and both can be reversed by calcium channel antagonists. A homologue (pfmdr1) of the mammalian multidrug resistance gene has been implicated in CQR because it is amplified in some CQR isolates of P. falciparum as is an mdr gene in MDR tumour cells. We show here that the complete sequences of pfmdr1 genes from 2 CQ sensitive (CQS) P. falciparum isolates are identical. In 5 CQR isolates, 1-4 key nucleotide differences resulted in amino acid substitutions. On the basis of these substitutions, we have correctly predicted the CQS/CQR status of a further 34 out of 36 isolates. This is a paradox as CQR arises much less frequently than would be predicted if single point mutations were sufficient. We conclude that a mutated pfmdr1 gene is one of at least two mutated genes required for CQR.