Seven Myths on Crowding and Peripheral Vision

  title={Seven Myths on Crowding and Peripheral Vision},
  author={Hans Strasburger},
Crowding has become a hot topic in vision research, and some fundamentals are now widely agreed upon. For the classical crowding task, one would likely agree with the following statements. (1) Bouma’s law can be stated, succinctly and unequivocally, as saying that critical distance for crowding is about half the target’s eccentricity. (2) Crowding is predominantly a peripheral phenomenon. (3) Peripheral vision extends to at most 90° eccentricity. (4) Resolution threshold (the minimal angle of… 
An enhanced Bouma model fits a hundred people’s visual crowding
Crowding is the failure to recognize an object due to surrounding clutter. Its strength varies across the visual field and individuals. To characterize the statistics of crowding—ultimately to relate
Investigating Visual Crowding of Objects in Complex Real-World Scenes
Visual crowding, the impairment of object recognition in peripheral vision due to flanking objects, has generally been studied using simple stimuli on blank backgrounds. While crowding is widely
Transient attention equally reduces visual crowding in radial and tangential axes
Crowding refers to the failure to identify a peripheral object due to its proximity to other objects (flankers). This phenomenon can lead to reading and object recognition impairments and is
Mixture model investigation of the inner–outer asymmetry in visual crowding reveals a heavier weight towards the visual periphery
In a radial arrangement of orientation crowding, within a region of selection, the outer item dominates appearance more than the inner one, revealing a counterintuitive phenomenon.
Dissecting (un)crowding
This work systematically dissected flanker configurations and showed that (un)crowding cannot be easily explained by the effects of the sub-parts or low-level features of the stimulus configuration, suggesting that ( un)c Crowding requires global processing.
The Effect of Changing Colours on Central Crowding Reading
Crowding can be defined as the impaired recognition of closely spaced objects. Changing colour and lighting enhance visual comfort and perceptual troubles that influence impaired vision reading.
Emergence of crowding: The role of contrast and orientation salience
Investigating crowding for stimuli that isolated either S-cone or luminance mechanisms or combined them found that crowding takes place at a neural processing stage after they have been combined, and found that flanker interference exhibited a genuine signature of crowding only when orientation discrimination threshold was reliably surpassed.
The generality of the critical spacing for crowded optotypes: From Bouma to the 21st century
With minimal assumptions, crowded acuity can be predicted for arbitrary target sizes and flanker spacings, revealing a performance “landscape” that delineates the critical spacing.
Cortical distance unifies the extent of parafoveal contour interactions
Abstract It is well known that crowding, the disruptive influence of flanking items on identification of targets, is the primary limiting factor to object identification in the periphery, while
A review of interactions between peripheral and foveal vision
Findings illustrate that peripheral and foveal processing are closely connected, mastering the compromise between a large peripheral visual field and high resolution at the fovea.


Crowding—An essential bottleneck for object recognition: A mini-review
  • D. Levi
  • Psychology
    Vision Research
  • 2008
Crowding is directed to the fovea and preserves only feature contrast.
Crowding appears to spare only the most salient peripheral information, which supports the hypothesis that crowding is caused by limitations of attentional resolution.
Crowding is size and eccentricity dependent.
It is shown that the non-foveal data in all three tasks can be characterized as shifted versions of the same psychometric function such that different sections of the function characterize data at each eccentricity, suggesting that the distance-dependent interference increases with eccentricity.
On the generality of crowding: visual crowding in size, saturation, and hue compared to orientation.
Interestingly, although critical spacings are highly comparable, crowding magnitude differs across features: Size crowding is almost as strong as orientation crowding, whereas the effect is much weaker for saturation and hue.
Evolving the Keys to Visual Crowding
It is concluded that Bouma’s rule does not necessarily hold in densely cluttered displays and instead, a nearest-neighbor segmentation rule provides a better account.
Crowding and surround suppression: not to be confused.
The results demonstrate that surround suppression and crowding are indeed two distinct phenomena, and used this characteristic anisotropy to show that a popular crowding paradigm in which target contrast is varied to measure crowding is confounding it with surround suppression.
Radial-tangential anisotropy of crowding in the early visual areas.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the change in mean blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response due to the addition of a middle letter between a pair of radially or tangentially arranged flankers and found that the BOLD signal evoked by the middle letter depended on the arrangement of the flankers.
Crowding: a cortical constraint on object recognition
  • D. Pelli
  • Biology
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology
  • 2008
The shape and size of crowding for moving targets
Foveal Crowding Resolved
Adapt optics is used to overcome ocular aberrations and high-resolution stimuli are employed to precisely characterize foveal lateral interactions with high-contrast letters flanked by letters to reveal a recovery effect with proximal flankers.