W ith increasing participation of women in the U.S. military, and more than 2.2 million U.S. women Veterans, the health and health care of military and Veteran women is an important Veterans Health Administration (VA) priority. The goal of this supplement is to disseminate new research findings; highlight research that can lead to improvements in care; and raise awareness of, stimulate interest in, and increase research about the health care of women Veterans and women in the military. The supplement was sponsored by the VA Health Services Research & Development Service (HSR&D) through the VA Women’s Health Research Consortium. Two previous supplements/ special theme issues published in 2006 and 2011 focused on women Veterans’ research. We received a record number of manuscripts for this third and updated supplement (79) and we ultimately accepted 19 manuscripts. The quality of the research was outstanding. To adhere to publishing constraints, 16 manuscripts appear in this supplement, with the other three manuscripts being published in a regular issue of JGIM. This supplement addresses many women’s health issues that are emerging areas for the care of women Veterans. The research published herein will inform the care of women Veterans by general internists within and outside of the VA. We have organized the supplement based on six main topics identified in the 2010 VA agenda setting conference for women’s health research led by Yano et al. (2011).