Astronomy is an inseparable part of ancient cultures. Archaeoastronomical surveys in different countries vary according to the period researchers are most interested in or have the most information of. The aim of the session is to get closer to the notion of what was perceived as important in the sky or on the horizon but in connection with the celestial bodies. One of the major interests is also the significance that was ascribed to it in ancient cultures and in societies, explored by archaeology. The complex relationship between astronomy and other aspects of a culture's life, such as politics and economy, makes astronomical part extremely interesting and revealing. The interdisciplinarity of the subject logically employs modification of anthropological and ethnological approaches in the least. A culture's astronomical concepts interact mostly with religious ideas; people strived to adjust their activities with natural cycles or with especial events in the natural world (on the sky or in connection of the sky with the horizons). Archaeoastronomical research supported by a theoretical erudition can assist in elucidation of such interactions.