Serum concentrations of immunoreactive pancreatic polypeptide (IPP) were measured serially for 7 days after experimental induction of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis in dogs by infusion of oleic acid into the pancreatic duct. The mean serum IPP concentrations in dogs with pancreatitis were increased significantly (P = 0.013) for 96 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Providing food at 108 hours resulted in significant increases (P = 0.032) in mean serum IPP concentrations in sham-operated control dogs compared with dogs with induced pancreatitis. This was attributed to cephalic-phase release of IPP due to a conditioned response that resulted from feeding immediately after each blood sampling. Mean serum IPP concentrations returned to base line more quickly than did mean serum amylase concentrations in dogs with pancreatitis.