Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), which is part of a family of secreted glycoproteins that are structurally similar to angiopoietins, is principally expressed in the liver and is involved in lipid metabolism and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of serum ANGPTL3 levels, measured with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in patients with systemic sclerosis. Serum ANGPTL3 levels correlated positively with skin score in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with a disease duration ≤ 6 years. Furthermore, the prevalence of digital ulcers was significantly higher in patients with elevated serum ANGPTL3 levels than in other patients. Moreover, among patients excluding diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with disease duration ≤ 6 years, serum ANGPTL3 levels correlated positively with estimated right ventricular systolic pressure. In conclusion, ANGPTL3 may contribute to the development of progressive skin sclerosis and proliferative obliterative vasculopathy, such as digital ulcers and pulmonary vascular involvement leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension, in systemic sclerosis.