Mastitis was induced experimentally in ewes with Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in milk and serum, and the somatic cell counts and bacteria in the milk were determined for up to 10 weeks in two experiments, each examining five infected and five control ewes. The somatic cell counts peaked eight hours after infection and preceded an increase in SAA in milk. A maximum concentration of 6460 microg/ml SAA was recorded in milk from the infected sheep, compared with a mean concentration of 1.4 microg/ml in the control sheep. The mean peak concentration of SAA in serum (206.8 microg/ml) occurred earlier (one day after infection) than in milk. The serum concentration of SAA in the healthy animals ranged from 0 to 29.4 microg/ml. There was no correlation between the concentrations of SAA in serum and milk.