Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) values were measured in hepatic diseased dogs with or without tumor and non-hepatic tumor bearing dogs by a sandwich ELISA using anti-dog AFP antiserum. Serum AFP values were less than 70 ng/ml in clinically healthy dogs. The values in dogs with hepatocellular carcinoma were higher than 1,400 ng/ml in 7 of 9 dogs, wherever those in two dogs with cholangiocarcinoma were in the normal range. Serum AFP values in hepatic diseased dogs without tumor were also high, however, the values were below 500 ng/ml in 90% of the dogs. In non-hepatic tumor dogs, serum AFP values were less than 500 ng/ml in 76% of the dogs. In the surgically removal cases with hepatocellular carcinoma, serum AFP values rapidly decreased. These results suggested that the sandwich ELISA using anti-dog AFP antiserum was an available method for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in dogs.