OBJECTIVE This is an Asian study, which was designed to examine the correlations between biochemical data and food composition of diabetic patients in Taiwan. METHODS One hundred and seventy Taiwanese diabetic patients were enrolled. The correlations between biochemical data and diet composition (from 24-hour recall of intake food) of these patients were explored (Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Diet components were also correlated with each other to show diet characteristics of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Linear regression was also performed for the significantly correlated groups to estimate possible impacts from diet composition to biochemical data. RESULTS Postprandial serum glucose level was negatively correlated with fat percentage of diet, intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid and fiber diet composition. Hemoglobin A1c was negatively correlated with fat diet, polyunsaturated fatty acid and vegetable diet. Fat composition, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid in diet seemed to be negatively correlated with sugar percentage of diet and positively correlated with vegetable and fiber composition of diet. Linear regression showed that intake amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid, calorie percentage accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acid, fat percentage of diet, vegetable composition of diet would predict lower hemoglobin A1c and postprandial blood sugar. Besides, higher percentage of fat diet composition could predict higher percentage of vegetable diet composition in Taiwanese diabetic patients. CONCLUSION Fat diet might not elevate serum glucose. Vegetable diet and polyunsaturated fatty acid diet composition might be correlated with better sugar control in Taiwanese diabetic patients.