Serum C-peptide levels and breast cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

@article{Verheus2006SerumCL,
  title={Serum C-peptide levels and breast cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).},
  author={Martijn Verheus and P. H. Peeters and Sabina Rinaldi and Laure Dossus and Carine Biessy and Anja Olsen and Anne Tj\onneland and Kim Overvad and Majbritt Jeppesen and Francoise Clavel-Chapelon and Bertrand T{\'e}hard and Gabriele Nagel and Jakob Linseisen and H. B{\"o}ing and Petra H. Lahmann and Athina Arvaniti and Theodora Psaltopoulou and Antonia Trichopoulou and Domenico Palli and Rosario Tumino and Salvatore Panico and Carlotta Sacerdote and Sabina Sieri and Carla H van Gils and Bas H Bueno-de-Mesquita and Carlos A. Gonz{\'a}lez and Eva Ardanaz and Nera Larranaga and Carmen Martinez Garcia and Carmen Navarro and Jos{\'e} Ram{\'o}n Quir{\'o}s and Timothy J Key and Naomi E. Allen and Sheila Anne Bingham and Kay-Tee Khaw and Nadia Slimani and Elio Riboli and Rudolf Kaaks},
  journal={International journal of cancer},
  year={2006},
  volume={119 3},
  pages={659-67}
}
It has been hypothesized that chronic hyperinsulinemia, a major metabolic consequence of physical inactivity and excess weight, might increase breast cancer risk by direct effects on breast tissue or indirectly by increasing bioavailable levels of testosterone and estradiol. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we measured serum levels of C-peptide--a marker for pancreatic insulin secretion--in a total of 1,141 incident cases of breast cancer and 2,204… CONTINUE READING

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