Serotoninergic and melatoninergic systems are fully expressed in human skin

  title={Serotoninergic and melatoninergic systems are fully expressed in human skin},
  author={Andrzej T. Slominski and Alexander V. Pisarchik and Igor V Semak and Trevor W. Sweatman and Jacobo Wortsman and Andre Szczesniewski and George Slugocki and John Mcnulty and S{\"o}bia Kauser and Desmond J. Tobin and Chen Jing and Olle Johansson},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
We investigated the cutaneous expression of genes and enzymes responsible for the multistep conversion of tryptophan to serotonin and further to melatonin. Samples tested were human skin, normal and pathologic (basal cell carcinoma and melanoma), cultured normal epidermal and follicular melanocytes, melanoma cell lines, normal neonatal and adult epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, squamous cell carcinoma cells, and fibroblasts from dermis and follicular papilla. The majority of the samples… 

Tryptophan hydroxylase expression in human skin cells.

On the role of melatonin in skin physiology and pathology

It is proposed that melatonin (synthesized locally or delivered topically) could counteract or buffer external (environmental) or internal stresses to preserve the biological integrity of the organ and to maintain its homeostasis.

Serotoninergic system in hamster skin.

A cutaneous pathway displaying capabilities for serotonin biosynthesis and/or its metabolism to N-acetylserotonin in rodent skin is uncovered, as serotonin has powerful vasodilator, immunomodulator, and growth factor actions, and this pathway could be involved in skin physiology and/ or pathology.

Characterization of serotonin and N‐acetylserotonin systems in the human epidermis and skin cells

A serotonin‐NAS system in human skin that is a part of local neuroendocrine system regulating skin homeostasis is characterized and produced endogenously in the epidermal, dermal, and adnexal compartments of human skin and in cultured skin cells.

The cutaneous serotoninergic/melatoninergic system: securing a place under the sun

The widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic/melatoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra‐, auto‐, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner.

Characterization of the serotoninergic system in the C57BL/6 mouse skin.

Mouse skin has the molecular and biochemical apparatus necessary to produce and metabolize serotonin and N-acetylserotonin, and its activity is determined by topography, physiological status of the skin, cell type and mouse strain.

Serotoninergic and melatoninergic systems are expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH3T3 cells.

Evidence is provided that the NIH3T3 cells can synthesize intrinsic serotonin and melatonin and express key enzymes related biosynthetic pathways.

Melatonin exerts oncostatic capacity and decreases melanogenesis in human MNT‐1 melanoma cells

In vitro assessment indicates an oncostatic capacity of melatonin in time‐dependent manner in highly pigmented MNT‐1 melanoma cells and primary, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy demonstrated that melatonin reduced melanin content.

The melatonin-producing system is fully functional in retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19)

Specific Urinary Metabolites in Malignant Melanoma

High-performance liquid chromatography detection of metabolites of L-tyrosine and tryptophan in the urine of melanoma patients may play a significant role in diagnostics as well as a therapeutic strategy of melanomas cancer.



Pleiotropic effects of corticotropin releasing hormone on normal human skin keratinocytes

In the keratinocyte, the most important cellular component of the epidermis, CRH appears to induce a shift in energy metabolism away from proliferation activity, and toward the enhancement of immunoactivity, suggesting cutaneous CRH may also be involved in the stress response, but at a highly localized level.

Inhibition of melanization in human melanoma cells by a serotonin uptake inhibitor.

The results show that human melanoma cells synthesize a wide range of biogenic amines in culture and suggest a new approach to regulating intracellular levels of dopamine and of a variety of dopa products.

Modification of melanogenesis in cultured human melanoma cells

Since the hamster amelanotic melanoma line shows profound metabolic and cellular changes accompanying the induction of melanin synthesis by DMEM or L-tyrosine, it is tested whether the changes in pigmentation level in human melanoma cells are similarly accompanied by increased expression of tyrosinasc and MC1R genes.

Melatonin biosynthesis and metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes.

Cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes (PBML) were able to synthesize indoleamines, including melatonin, and were also able to convert melatonin taken up from the incubation medium

A serotonin-like immunoreactivity is present in human cutaneous melanocytes.

The melanocytes are believed to be the origin of serotonin (or a serotonin-like molecule) in the skin.

PIG3V, an immortalized human vitiligo melanocyte cell line, expresses dilated endoplasmic reticulum

It is shown that analysis of melanocytes cultured from vitiligo donors can contribute to a further understanding of the etiopathomechanism, and the phenotype of PIG3V resembled melanocytes rather than melanoma cells in culture, which is an enigmatic pigmentary disorder of the skin.

Gene expression of the key enzymes of melatonin synthesis in extrapineal tissues of the rat

The presence of NAT and HIOMT mRNAs in a wide range of tissues corroborates and extends the notion of extrapineal melatonin synthesis within the immune system.

Melatonin inhibits proliferation and melanogenesis in rodent melanoma cells.

The demonstration of differential and unparalleled effects of melatonin on cell proliferation and melanogenesis suggests that melatonin can regulate or modify both processes via different mechanisms.

Solubilization and Biochemical Characterization of the Melatonin Deacetylase from Xenopus laevis Retina

Melatonin deacetylase, an enzyme activity recently discovered in the Xenopus laevis retina, regulates local melatonin levels and is inhibited by the melatonin precursor N‐acetylserotonin and the product of the deacetyase, 5‐methoxytryptamine.