Serotonin and Octopamine Produce Opposite Postures in Lobsters

  title={Serotonin and Octopamine Produce Opposite Postures in Lobsters},
  author={Margaret S. Livingstone and Ronald M. Harris-Warrick and Edward A. Kravitz},
  pages={76 - 79}
Serotonin and octopamine, injected into the circulation of freely moving lobsters and crayfish, produce opposite behavioral effects. Octopamine injection produces sustained extension of the limbs and abdomen; serotonin injection produces sustained flexion. Neurophysiological analyses show that these postures can be accounted for by opposing, coordinated effects of these amines on patterns of motoneuron activity recorded from the ventral nerve cord. 

The effect of serotonin and octopamine on the optokinetic response of the crab Leptograpsus variegatus.

Experiments show that serotonin is most likely acting closer to the sensory input in the optokinetic system than octopamine when applied in low doses.

Neurohormones and lobsters: biochemistry to behavior

Serotonin and octopamine have opposite modulatory effects on the crayfish's lateral giant escape reaction

  • D. GlanzmanF. Krasne
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1983
Although serotonin and octopamine modulate the excitability of the escape response, neither monoamine appears to significantly alter the rate at which this response habituates.

Serotonin Increases Flexion And Excitatory Junction Potential Amplitude While Octopamine Decreases Average Excitatory Junction Potential Amplitude In Crayfish

This study investigated the effects of serotonin and octopamine on excitatory junction potential amplitude (EJP) by stimulating the fast extensor muscles of the crayfish abdomen by injecting the amines into the hemolymph at the abdominal thoracic junction.

Effects of octopamine, dopamine, and serotonin on production of flight motor output by thoracic ganglia of Manduca sexta.

It is demonstrated that dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin have different effects on motor output in Manduca and suggested that these amines are involved in initiating, maintaining and terminating flight behavior, respectively.

Serotonin and octopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Exogenous serotonin and octopamine elicit specific and opposite behavioral responses in Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that these compounds function physiologically as antagonists.

Serotonin and octopamine elicit stereotypical agonistic behaviors in the squat lobster Munida quadrispina (Anomura, Galatheidae)

The social behaviors and reactions to injected serotonin and octopamine of M. quadrispina differ from those of lobsters and crayfish, indicating that interspecific differences in neuromodulation of behavior and motor output exist, and have implications for the understanding of aminergic modulation of aggression and the evolution of am inergic modulation in crustaceans.

Cellular mechanisms for modulation of posture by octopamine and serotonin in the lobster

The results suggest that octopamine and serotonin have dual effects on posture: within the central nervous system, they act specifically to generate coordinated motor patterns for flexion or extension; as circulating neurohormones, they acts nonspecifically to enhance the responses of exoskeletal muscles to motoneuronal activation.



The central nervous organization underlying control of antagonistic muscles in the crayfish. II. Coding of position by command fibers

Single central interneurons that produce flexion or extension in the crayfish abdomen act in a coordinated fashion upon several ganglia, which appears to code for a specific abdominal geometry.

Release of Coordinated Behavior in Crayfish by Single Central Neurons

By stimulating and recording from the same interneuron at two separate points, we have shown that coordinated output to the postural abdominal muscles of crayfish can be produced by electrical

Analysis of postural motoneuron activity in crayfish abdomen. II. Coordination by excitatory and inhibitory connections between motoneurons.

The analyses show that the larger, phasically active motoneurons are coordinated in their activity by cross connections made at the motoneuron level, which are both excitatory and inhibitor in nature and result in significant alterations in spike output.

The association of octopamine with specific neurones along lobster nerve trunks.

The several lines of evidence presented suggest that nerve cells found in the proximal segments of the second thoracic roots contain and can synthesize octopamine.

Properties of a symmetric pair of serotonin-containing neurones in the cerebral ganglia of Planorbis.

The data suggest that the serotonin neurones are modulatory cells, altering the level of excitability of buccal ganglion neurones, and fire independently except when driven by common input.

Targets of octopamine action in the lobster: cyclic nucleotide changes and physiological effects in hemolymph, heart and exoskeletal muscle.

Examination of three potential targets of octopamine action of the lobster found that each tissue responds to the amine with increases in cyclic adenosine 3': 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and changes in measurable physiological phenomena.

Command Fibres in the Circumoesophageal Connectives of Crayfish

1. Command interneurons from the circumoesophageal connectives of crayfish which are capable of evoking various cyclical, phasic behavioural outputs are described. By pooling evoked-behaviour data

The central nervous organization underlying control of antagonistic muscles in the crayfish. I. types of command fibers

A wide variety of postural adjustments may thus be controlled by a limited number of central neurons that make complex but specific output connections.

Physiological and chemical architecture of a lobster ganglion with particular reference to gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate.

The aim of the present work was to develop methods for finding and isolating the cell bodies of efferent excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the lobster central nervous system.

Analysis of postural motoneuron activity in crayfish abdomen. I. Coordination by premotoneuron connections.

The activity of the crayfish abdominal postural motoneurons and their associated neurons (the accessory neuron(s) and the MRO(1)) were examined with the aid of techniques for the analysis of