Modeling of US Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Seroprevalence by Age and Sexual Behavior Indicates an Increasing Trend of HPV Infection Following the Sexual Revolution.
BACKGROUND A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, licensed in 2014, prevents 4 HPV types targeted by the quadrivalent vaccine (6/11/16/18) and 5 additional high-risk (HR) types (31/33/45/52/58). Measuring seropositivity before vaccine introduction provides baseline data on exposure to types targeted by vaccines. METHODS We determined seroprevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 among 4943 persons aged 14-59 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. RESULTS Among females, seroprevalence was 40.5% for any of the 9 vaccine types, 30.0% for any 7 HR types (16/18/31/33/45/52/58), 19.0% for any 5 additional types (31/33/45/52/58), and 18.3% for 16/18. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks had higher seroprevalence of 31/33/45/52/58 (36.8% vs 15.9%) and 16/18 (30.1% vs 17.8%), while Mexican Americans had higher seroprevalence of 31/33/45/52/58 (23.6% vs 15.9%) (P < .05 for all). In multivariable analyses of data from females, race/ethnicity, number of sex partners, and age were associated with 16/18 and 31/33/45/52/58 seropositivity. Seropositivity was lower among males than among females (P < .001 for all type categories). CONCLUSIONS In 2005-2006, about 40% of females and 20% of males had serological evidence of exposure to ≥1 of 9 HPV types. Seroprevalence of all type categories, especially HPV 31/33/45/52/58 among females, varied by race/ethnicity.