Serine- and threonine-specific protein kinase activities of purified gag–mil and gag–raf proteins

@article{Moelling1984SerineAT,
  title={Serine- and threonine-specific protein kinase activities of purified gag–mil and gag–raf proteins},
  author={Karin Moelling and B. Heimann and Peter Beimling and Ulf R{\"u}diger Rapp and Thomas Sander},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1984},
  volume={312},
  pages={558-561}
}
Retroviruses carry cell-derived oncogenes (v-onc) that have the potential to transform cells in culture and induce tumours in vivo1,2. One of the few carcinoma-inducing viruses is the acutely transforming retrovirus MH2 (refs 2,3), which carries the putative oncogene v-mil and the known oncogene v-myc(refs 4–6). Recently, a high degree of homology was discovered between v-mil and v-raf (ref. 7), the transforming gene of the murine retrovirus 3611 murine sarcoma virus (MSV)8, whereas homology to… 
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TLDR
The results show that transformation by three growth factor receptor-like oncogenes depends on c-ras proteins, while transformation by two cytoplasmic onCogenes appears to be independent ofc-ras protein.
Biochemical Properties of Oncogene-Coded Proteins
The analysis of viral oncogenes and their gene products has allowed extensive studies on molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation in vitro. Understanding of tumorigenesis of human cells has
Mapping by in vitro constructs of the P100gag-mil region, accounting for induction of chicken neuroretina cell proliferation
TLDR
It is shown that gag sequences, as well as 200-base-pair 5' mil sequences, were not required to induce such a proliferation, however, gag sequences seem to contribute to a full proliferation of growing CNR.
Analysis of c-raf oncogene expression in gastrointestinal tumor cells.
TLDR
The expression of the activated proto-oncogene c-mil/raf in human tumors is focused on because it renders the cells independent of growth factors and therefore is involved in alteration of the signal transduction characteristic of many tumor cells.
Characterization of murine A-raf, a new oncogene related to the v-raf oncogene
TLDR
A 1.6-kilobase cDNA isolated from a murine spleen cDNA library which encodes part of a protein related to the raf oncogene represents a new proto-oncogene, which shows a highly restricted tissue distribution of expression.
Two nuclear oncogenic proteins, P135gag-myb-ets and p61/63myc, cooperate to induce transformation of chicken neuroretina cells
TLDR
Results are presented indicating that the P135gag-myb-ets nuclear protein of avian erythroblastosis virus E26 is able to induce proliferation but not transformation of chicken neuroretina cells.
Induction of putative tumor-suppressing genes in Rat-1 fibroblasts by oncogenic Raf-1 as evidenced by robot-assisted complex hybridization
TLDR
RafCT induces factors which act in a conflicting manner in respect of carcinogenesis, especially within the proteolytic system of the extracellular matrix, including plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2.
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References

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Nucleotide sequence of avian retroviral oncogene v-mil: homologue of murine retroviral oncogene v-raf
TLDR
The complete nucleotide sequence of v-mil is reported and compare it with that ofv-raf and clearly indicates that these are the avian and murine forms of the same gene.
Structure and biological activity of v-raf, a unique oncogene transduced by a retrovirus.
TLDR
Comparison of the transforming gene from 3611-MSV, designated v-raf, with previously isolated retrovirus oncogenes either by direct hybridization or by comparison of restriction fragments of their cellular homologs shows it to be unique.
P85gag-mos encoded by ts110 Moloney murine sarcoma virus has an associated protein kinase activity.
TLDR
Results indicate that incubation of anti-p30 immunoprecipitates at 39 degrees C drastically reduced, in a specific way, the kinase activity associated with P85(gag-mos), and other data suggest that the Kinase enzyme is virus-encoded.
Nuclear localization and DNA binding of the transforming gene product of avian myelocytomatosis virus
TLDR
Immunofluorescence studies and cell fractionation of MC29-transformed fibroblasts indicate that the 110 K protein is predominantly located in the nucleus, and the purified protein binds to double-stranded DNA, which may be related to the role of the protein in transformation.
Primary structure of v-raf: relatedness to the src family of oncogenes.
A replication-defective, acute transforming retrovirus (murine sarcoma virus 3611) was isolated from mouse and molecularly cloned. The nucleotide sequence of 1.5 kilobases encompassing the
Homologous cell-derived oncogenes in avian carcinoma virus MH2 and murine sarcoma virus 3611
TLDR
It is reported here that the two independently transduced oncogenes v-mil and v-raf are closely related and that they were apparently derived from homologous cellular genes of avian and mammalian species.
The transforming protein of the MC29‐related virus CMII is a nuclear DNA‐binding protein whereas MH2 codes for a cytoplasmic RNA‐DNA binding polyprotein.
TLDR
The results indicate that the CMII‐specific polyprotein p90 behaved indistinguishably from the p110 of MC29, however, the MH2‐specificpolyprotein p100 exhibited unique and novel properties which were distinct from a gag‐myc‐type protein.
Transforming protein of avian sarcoma virus UR2 is associated with phosphatidylinositol kinase activity: possible role in tumorigenesis.
TLDR
A mechanism whereby certain oncogene proteins might cause the unrestricted growth typical of transformed cells and could explain why tumor promoters mimic many of the effects of transformation is suggested.
Biochemical characterization of transformation‐specific proteins of acute avian leukemia and sarcoma viruses
TLDR
The biological and biochemical properties of the transformation‐specific proteins of three avian oncornaviruses with different oncogenic potentials were compared and it was shown that the gag‐myc protein was located in the nucleus, and bound to DNA after purification.
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