Series on comprehensive management of end-stage COPD.

C hronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects 6% of the general population and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe and very severe disease, as defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages III and IV [1], show a prevalence of 4.5 and 2.2% in males [2, 3]. COPD guidelines generally do not… CONTINUE READING